Dan Ebner Bill Notes - Bio Notes Start from Charles Darwin...

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Bio Notes – Start from Charles Darwin on Galapagos Charles Darwin on Galapagos 1 Encountered the strange animals – rodent hare, etc 2 Darwin’s Finches o Around 13 species, studied extensively o Birds were related to each other in some way – shared a common ancestry o Major differences between finches Shape and size of bill/ beak, smaller and larger, slightly different shapes Foraging Behavior – insect eaters, plant eaters, combinations of both Warbler – needle like bill, eats insects…plant eaters have much larger bills – feeds in the upper parts of trees Tool Using Finch – woodpecker finch – example in the animal kingdom of an individual - who uses a tool in its everyday activities, uses cactus or other spines to look for insects ( Woodpecker has a large thin tongue that has spines on it, just inhales the grubs ) – the Tool Using Finch uses the spine to extract the grubs. ( Secretary Bird uses stones to break Ostrich eggs to eat them, Seagull (gulls) dropped clams from high heights to break them ) Darwin back to England – 1936 -27 years old 2 Major Questions – how did animals change? o Already knew the species were not immutable but changed over time 3 Journal o Transmutation of Species – touched on some form of natural selection 4 Ran back to Shrewsbury o Went back to see Emma at his Uncle’s house, married Emma later, bore him 10 children over a 16 year period 5 Continuing Question o Went out and discussed his ideas with other biologists ( Pigeon compared to other varieties of pigeons – actually a process of inbreeding because they kept the same “families” of pigeons or other birds/animals together for a large period of time Artificial Selection ) Artificial Selection – breeders take similar, appealing birds and have them breed together to make better looking birds. (Labrador Retrievers – joints become arthritic because the back legs are weak – most likely a result of inbreeding) After seeing Artificial Selection, began to see something in Natural Selection o Thomas Robert Malthus Darwin read an Essay on the Principles of Population
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Malthus indicated that he was concerned that people would eventually breed beyond the possible food supplies – tried to find an arithmetic equation for that occurrence o Arithmetic progression – the food increases arithmetically (2, 4, 6, 8, 10…) o Geometric progression – people increasing geometrically (2,4,8,16,32,64…) o Eventually following the equations people would surpass the amount of food – food would control population o Bubonic Plague – 70 million people died – another control through pestilence o War – native tribe, 80 – 100 people, grow a little food, eat animals…another little tribe nearby, suddenly had a growth spurt, jumping from 100 to 150 or 200 – they steal from the first tribe, they run out of food, they go out and fight, some people die, and the population goes back to a placid lifestyle.
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