Nick Patel Stat Lab - Probability and Statistics Laboratory...

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Probability and Statistics Laboratory Nick Patel Lab Partners: Rohit Sreedharan, Valerie Grant, and Sara Khalil 10:00 Lecture
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Introduction: Statistics is defined “ the mathematics of the collection, organization, and interpretation of numerical data” (Webster’s 1078). Gottfried Achenwall, a philosophy professor at Gottingham University first employed the word in the 1700s. However, he spelled it statistik. This word was used to describe “a systematic comparison of data about nations” in German universities. Statistics was first introduced during the ancient times. The earliest forms of statistics took the forms of censuses. Several different censuses are described in the Old Testament of the Bible. William the Conquerer also ordered a census of his lands in 1088, which later became known as the “Doomsday Book” (Eves 1). Herodotus, who is known as the father of history, reported one of the earliest census reports in ancient about Greece in 1400 B.C. Other reports state that early censuses were done in ancient Rome, Greece, Babylon, China, and even India. The information collected by the censuses was either used “to determine liability of adult males for military service” or to levy taxes. (Medhi 4). In the early 1830s, statistics first showed up in sciences in the field of astronomy (“History,” 2000). Eventually, Karl Pearson, an English scientist, greatly contributed to scientific statistics, earning the title of being the father of scientific statistic (Eves 1) Ronald A. Fisher was one of the major contributors to modern statistics. In 1925, he published Statistical Methods for Research Workers (Coolidge 152). He also “developed the theoretical foundations of analysis of variance or ANOVA (Coolidge 173). This is used later in this lab. Sir Francis Galton, the cousin of Charles Darwin, “devised new statistical methods which he applied to the study of heredity” (Eves 1). He also calculated that there was only “a chance of 1 in 64 billion that two fingers would have the same fingerprint” (“History,” 2000).
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In the 1800s, different societies of statistics began rising, including the Royal Statistical Society of London. Many different statistic journals also began to arise. One of the most noted is the Indian statistics journal, the Sankhya. This renowned journal began its publication in 1933 (Eves 1). By the early twentieth century, statistics began to be used in social and economic questions. The first leaders in social and economic statistics include Adolphe Quetelet ho created the average man and William Stanley Jevons who tried to see how the gold rushes in California and Australia affected the price of gold (“History,” 2000). Today, statistics plays a major role in anything ranging from entertainment and sports to politics and science. Methods and Materials:
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 100 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina Upstate.

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Nick Patel Stat Lab - Probability and Statistics Laboratory...

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