Jenn's Stat Lab - Statistics and Probability Laboratory...

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Statistics and Probability Laboratory Jennifer Swiantek Lab Partners: Joy Speaks and Monique Courtenay Monday 2:30 Lab
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INTRODUCTION According to the Columbia Encyclopedia , statistics is defined as the “science of collecting and classifying a group of facts according to their relative number and determining certain values that represent characteristics of the group.” But statistics is a science that people use everyday, whether it is a student attempting to determine the grade they need to receive on an assignment in order to pass a class, a baseball fanatic calculating and memorizing the batting average of every player on the team, or the census bureau evaluating the relationship between minorities and college graduates; statistics is a never-ending art. The history of statistics can be traced back to the 1830s, when methods of statistical analysis were commonly used in astronomy to calculate things like the probable error of the position of Jupiter. Early statisticians included Adolphe Quetelet, William Stanley Jevons, and Francis Galton, all of whom made advances in the field of statistics by challenging a universal dogma and backing it with statistical evidence. But, it wasn’t until the early 20 th century, that statistics were used to answer the social and economical inquiries such as life expectancy or rate of inflation. But, with statistics new- found popularity, there also came much controversy. In a specific case, Karl Pearson published a statistical article claiming that parental alcoholism had no considerable health effects on the offspring. Critics of statistics, including such noteworthy names as John Maynard Keyes and Alfred Marshall, attacked both the data and analysis of these findings, and what ensued was a heated, fierce, and ill-tempered debate. These days, statistics no longer insights such ferocious controversy and is instead a well-received branch of both the scientific and mathematical community. High schools,
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colleges, and universities offer extensive classes in many various aspects of statistics. Statistics have come a long way from the theoretical astronomical placement of heavenly bodies in the 19 th century to the well-known and widely accepted statistics that are used today, whether it is in sports, classrooms, or scientific experimentation. METHODS AND MATERIALS 1. Coin Toss For this section of the laboratory, we flipped a standard mint twenty-five cent quarter in the air ten times and one hundred times and recorded the result as landing on heads or tails. We totaled the class results from the one hundred toss in order to gain data for the 400 toss survey. The designated “flipper” in the group was Joy Speaks. She placed the coin face-up on her right thumbnail and in between her index finger and caught it in her hand and then flipped it into the opposite hand. We then recorded it as either heads or tails. If we didn’t catch the coin, and it fell on the floor/table, the data was not recorded.
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 100 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina Upstate.

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Jenn's Stat Lab - Statistics and Probability Laboratory...

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