November 17, 2003 - Ecology

November 17, 2003 - Ecology - I II Ecology a Eco from oikos...

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I. Ecology a. “Eco” from “oikos”; and “logos” b. study of house or dwelling i. the study of the interactions of an organism and its environment. Environment can mean several different traits of the habitat. Includes water, plants, etc. Also other animals, predators or parasites. All are important to an organisms survival c. We will talk about ecological principles d. Extremely large e. Three Areas i. Populations 1. a group of individuals of the same species that lives in a specific area ii. Communities 1. all the populations that live in a given area and interact with one another iii. Eco-Systems 1. Ecological community along with its environment iv. The Eco-sphere 1. the entire earth II. Populations a. The number of individuals within a population i. These must be managed on an annual basis. ii. We need to know the number of animals in an area in order to be managed iii. Both the Whooping Crane and the Condor have gone under intensive management in order to help prevent extinction. iv. The number isn’t exactly what is important, more the density of the population v. Also you need to sometime take a bio mass 1. the mass of all organic material in an area vi. Total counts 1. if the animals are large and conspicuous 2. like elephants or giraffes b. Quadrant Assessing i. Limited number of “counters” ii. So the counting is taken care of in small quadrants instead of the entire area. iii. You can use a Rendom Number Generator and measure a percentage of the area. 1. of course, the sample needs to be random 2. trees are extremely easy in that they are fixed and do not run away. Lol. 3. For example, the fence lizard c. Mark and Recapture i. For the animals that are not staying in one area.
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ii. You would set a number of traps to capture individuals of the species, the individuals would be marked with something, say paint. Maybe a more inconspicuous device for marking. iii. Then you release the animals and set the traps again. And then consider the individuals that are recaptured III. Stratified a. Focus the sampling efforts in the areas in which the individuals are most likely to be present or abundant. IV.
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November 17, 2003 - Ecology - I II Ecology a Eco from oikos...

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