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Unformatted text preview: Probability and Statistics Lab Report Erik J. Askea October 12, 2011 Biology 201 Lab 10 th Period Introduction The basic concept of statistics has been known for many centuries. Then, statistics were primarily used by various forms of government for making calculations on the population, agricultural, or economical values. Even today, the governments of industrialized countries are considered to collect and interpret some of the largest collections of data. However, statistics is not confined to only the government. Most professions, namely those that are considered academic, use statistics in at least one application or another. “Statistics arises out of caution in the face of uncertainty”(Rowntree, 1981). Basically, statistics is the measurement of error in an experiment. Statistics can calculate the average of a set of values, the percent of error likely in an experiment, or the likelihood that a measurement is just by chance rather than a meaningful piece of data. Statistics help the sciences by specifying those figures that are typical and those that are in the extreme. The purpose of this lab is help reinforce the ideas of statistics that we have learned during lab lectures and to allow us to implement these ideas into actual use. Some of the tests or applications that we will be using are the chisquare test, student t tests, product moment correlation, and simple linear regression. The chisquare test will be used to determine if there is a significant difference from observed figures and the expected figures. The student ttests will be used to determine if there is a significant difference between two observed figures. The product moment correlation and simple linear regression will be used to find if two variables are related and if there is a real dependent relationship between those variables, respectively. II. Methods and Materials A. Coin Toss My group and I gathered in the second floor study lounge to conduct this experiment. We used a standard U.S. Mint Quarter Dollar to create a situation involving two variables with one variable being randomly “chosen” each trial. We accomplished this by having me place the quarter on my thumb and forefinger and then having me use my thumb to forcefully flip the quarter into the air. I then caught the quarter in my right palm and then flipped my right hand over onto the back of my left hand. We used this procedure to find the results after ten flips and one hundred flips. We then combined our results from the one hundred flips with the results of our three fellow classroom groups...
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 Spring '11
 Smith
 Biology

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