Mal's Stat Lab - S S TATISTICS TATISTICS & & P P...

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Unformatted text preview: S S TATISTICS TATISTICS & & P P ROBABILITY ROBABILITY L L AB AB M M ALLORY ALLORY H H UDSON UDSON B B IOLOGY IOLOGY 201 201 2/17/02 2/17/02 On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this lab. I. I. Introduction Introduction Webster’s New World Dictionary defines statistics as “the science of compiling numerical data assembled and classified so as to present significant information” (Webster 577). Today, statistics is usually associated with information in newspapers, such as sports statistics, polls, and weather information. Statistics is far more complex than these common examples. Data collection is absolutely necessary to statistics. In class, data was defined as “subjectivity-free analysis”. Data used in statistics is generally collected in a form that can be analyzed. After data has been collected, it must be organized so that it can be used to deduce logical conclusions. In statistics, the most important measurements are the mean, the median, the range, and the standard deviation. After the data is organized and necessary measurements are calculated, it must be interpreted. Inaccurate or incomplete data can distort results and invalidate any conclusions made from the results. Statistics have been used since ancient times. The use of statistics dates back to Aristotle. Aristotle listed numerical data in his treatises on “matters of the state”. The word “statistics” and “state” are derived from the same root. Throughout history, nations have used statistics to estimate military, financial, material, and human resources. Statistics have also been used in more trivial situations. The popularity of gambling amongst aristocrats grew notably in the 16 th century. As more people became more addicted to gambling, more people had questions about probability. The uses of statistics over time range from keeping gamblers from losing their money to analyzing insurance and the economy to making agricultural decisions. Over time, statistics has become an intricate and sophisticated science. Many major breakthroughs in statistics have come about in the past two hundred years. Statistical techniques used collecting and interpreting government data, astrological and biological data, genetics, and intelligence data have been combined to form a more unified system of statistical analysis. Today, this system is used in almost every area of science. An understanding of statistics is necessary for any serious scientist. II. II. M ETHODS ETHODS AND AND M M ATERIALS ATERIALS In this lab, materials used were a laptop computer, the computer program Microsoft Excel, a TI-83 Plus calculator, a quarter, coin tossing data collected by various groups within the class, data for the genetics experiment given in class, two populations (one living on the 2 nd floor and one living on the 4 th floor of the residence hall) and data collected from each of them, and t-statistic and Chi-square value tables given in class....
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 100 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina Upstate.

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Mal's Stat Lab - S S TATISTICS TATISTICS & & P P...

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