Christi Lynn's Test #1 Notes (2003)

Christi Lynn's Test #1 Notes (2003) - Galileo in 1633 he...

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Galileo- in 1633, he was asked to take back his claim that the earth moved around the sun. He was given a piece of paper that he had to read off of. It said: “abjured, cursed, and detested his erroneous claim that the earth moved around the sun. Heliocentric theory- proposed by Nicholas Copernicus Aristotelian logic- deductive reasoning that used established truths to deduce less known things. 1. if 2. then 3. therefore Deductive syllogism- for example, geometry proofs The moon is irregular. He was the first to use the scientific method. Taxonomy- science of classifying species There are two million named species, and these only account for 20% of all life. 900,000 of these are insects. Where did all of this diversity come from? 1. Creationism 2. Evolution- comes from Latin evolute- unrolling. Changes in living organisms over geologic time. 99% of all species that have lived on the Earth are extinct. The simplest organisms were found 3.5-3.8 million years ago. They gave rise to higher forms of life. They are still around today in the same form.
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“Evolutionary theory gives us the most logical scientific explanation for what appears to be a contradiction in life.” Life has both diversity (superficial) and unity (on the bio- molecular level of life). 1973- Theodosius Dobzhansky- “nothing in biology makes any sense except in the light of evolution.” Evolution- Changes in gene (allelic) frequencies in a population over time. Pre-Darwinian Ideas: Plato- 427-347 B.C. - believed that there were 2 worlds. 1. Real, ideal, eternal word. 2. World of illusion- imperfect and perceived by senses. Variations are imperfections of ideal forms that live with God. His theory is also called Idealism or Essentialism. It ruled out evolution because if the organisms were already perfect, then there would be no reason for evolution. Aristotle- 384-322 B. C. – Plato’s student. He doubted Plato’s theory. He was a naturalist and came up with the earliest scheme of classification. Common names are Scale of Nature and Ladder of Life, but its scientific name is Scala Naturae. It says species are on a scale in order from simple to complex. Each species has its own rung and can't move. Species are immutable- unchanging, exist as they always have. It supported the Old Testament idea of creationism. Dark Ages- period of time where people were intellectually and creatively suppressed. Roger Bacon- said “Cease to be ruled by dogmas and authorities; look at the world.” Sir Thomas Moore, Francis Bacon, Copernicus, Galileo- tried to explain universe and Earth, stop accepting what the church said. Inductive reasoning- Specific to general.
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Theologians decided they wanted species to be classified so the steps of the scale of life could be made clear to everyone. Carrolus Linnaeus-1807-1778.- Swedish botanist and physician. He believed in permanency (immutability) of species. He is the Father of Modern Taxonomy. The taxonomy he proposed was used to support concept of evolution. He published 2 works: 1753- Species Plantarum ; 1758- Systema Naturae . Hi system used a binomial scheme of nomenclature.
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