Lecture outline 2 - 9-25-02Chapter 22/24Genesis of...

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Unformatted text preview: 9-25-02Chapter 22/24Genesis of diversityEvolution of SpeciesLiving things placed in categoriesSegregate things into living groupsLiving organisms go into speciesSpecies name LatinKind/appearanceVariations from individual to individualShare biologically significant attributesErnst MayrGraduated from Harvard1927 expeditionTo New Guinea Arafack MountainsInteracted with the nativesAsked about the number of birds137 species of birdsActually counted 138 species of birdsHistorical changes and concepts of speciesTypological speciesAccepted by biologists and non-biologistsStatic, immutable speciesTypified by formMorphological speciesRecognized by form or morphologyIntraspecific variationMales/femalesLook differentSometimes classified differentlyBiological speciesA genetically distinct group of natural populations sharing a common gene pool being reproductively isolated from all other such groupsConspecificMembers of a species united by being potentially reproductively compatibleInteractionsIntraspecificBreeding within speciesInterspecificBreeding between two speciesBiological species separationsPhysiologicalAnatomicalBehavioralSpeciationThe origin of new species in EvolutionFinal criteriaTermination of gene flow between populationsRecognition concept of speciesBased on mate recognition mechanisms which assumes the reproductive adaptations of a species consist of a set of features that maximize successful mating with members of the populationCohesion concept of speciesMechanisms that maintain species as a distinct phenotypic unit may include reproductive barriers, stabilizing selection, integrated set of genes, and a-sexual reproduction emphasis adaptations that maintain the species identity despite occasional hibernation with other speciesEcological concept of speciesDefine species based on the ecological role they play in a specific environment that they are fromEvolutionary concept of speciesEvolutionary lineages and present ecological roles and common selective pressures unit a speciesBiological ExceptionsGrey wolf + Alaskan husky = PawneeMale African lion + female tiger = TiglonFemale African lion + male tiger = LigerShape of one, coloration of the otherA-SexualSeparate and go their own waysDeer Mouse ParamiscusDont mate/breed with each other except through subgenusesMechanisms of speciationTwo evolutionary processesAnagenesisInvolves the transformation of an entire species into a new speciesPhyletic speciationYou have an existing species that goes under a series of genetic changes and over time replaces itselfIE teleologySome design in nature that has enough differences to changes itselfGenetic changes lead to phenotypic changesNot most common processesCladogenesisBranch originNew species arise from parent species which continue to existBranching speciationIncreases diversityMost common form of evolutionary processThree modes of speciationGeographical relationship to ancestral to ancestral form...
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Lecture outline 2 - 9-25-02Chapter 22/24Genesis of...

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