Biology outline - Galileo Aristilian Logic Take common...

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Galileo Aristilian Logic Take common truth and find other truths that are hidden in it Deductive syllogism If major premise Then minor premise Therefore conclusion Taxonomists Identify and name, classifies Over 2 million named 20% of species on Earth Does change because of reclassification Diversity of Life Two theories Creation science God put it there Evolution Evolute- unrolling Changes in living organisms over geologic time Explains unity and diversity 1973- Theodosius Dobzhanska Nothing makes sense except in light of Evolution Plato’s two worlds Real, ideal, eternal Illusion, deception, imperfect, by senses Perceiver imperfect, not object Essentialism Aristotle Organized life in Scala Naturae Simple to complex Life forms immutable Inductive reasoning Experimental and conclusion from research Roger Bacon Cease to be ruled by dogmas and authorities; look at world Theologians Wanting to classify life Coralus Linnaeus Wanted to prove God’s plan by classifying things in nature Books Species planatarum Systema Naturae Binomial Nomenclature First generic (noun) Second specific (usually adjective) Ex. Ursus maritimus
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18 th /19 th century George Cuvier Father of Paleontology Noticed succession of fossils through time in strata of Paris Basin Suggested extinction by Catastopism Catastropism Catastrophic events occurred, species became extinct New forms filled old niche James Hutton Gradualism Subtle, small events continually happening in nature explaining geological events Charles Lyell Uniformitarialism Extreme form of gradualism Geological processes are so uniform that they balance each other over time Lamarck Paleontologist Laid fossils in order of time First to explain mechanism of evolution Mechanism Use and disuse Body parts used extensively- grow stronger Don’t shrivel up and degenerate Inheritance of acquired traits Traits acquired in use are passed to offspring Giraffes Attack Cuvier attacked- lost position, family, life Two significant points Observed and stated species change overtime Indicated environment affects change Charles Darwin 1809, Shrewsbury, England Granddad Erasmus Wrote papers on zoology and botany Spurred Darwin to think about common descent Edinburgh Medical school Blood- NO!!!! Christ College at Cambridge Mentor- John Henslow Botanist Learned plant taxonomy Adam Sedgewick
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Geology Josiah Wedgewood Uncle Emma Wedgewood Gave “educated” opinion that Darwin should go on Beagle HMS Beagle Robert Fitzroy Bipolar captain Naturalist Chart coast South America Chart longitude and latitude lines Lyell’s Principles of Geology Earth is old Saw Mara (Patagonian Hare) filling rabbits niche in South America Glyptodont Giant armadillo, Giant ground sloth Endemic forms Localized distribution in a particular area Extant Modern living form of particular species Extinct Only in fossil form Galapagos Islands Archipelago Chain of oceanic islands Non-native pigs and rats Introduced by sailors Marine Iguana Excrete salt from water Galapagos tortoise
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Biology outline - Galileo Aristilian Logic Take common...

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