Chapter-10 - CHAPTER 10 CHEMICAL BONDING nature of covalent...

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1 CHAPTER 10 CHEMICAL BONDING • nature of covalent bond • Lewis structures • molecular geometry • molecular polarity • bond energies • ionic bonding (12.9)
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2 The covalent bond non-bonding e pair Lewis (1916) single covalent bond = sharing of 2 e’s between atoms Cl + Cl Cl Cl •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• bonding e pair
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3 octet rule atoms share e’s to achieve an octet (8 e’s) in their valence shell strictly applies to Period 2 (Li F) only valence shell = 1 2s + 3 2p orbitals can accommodate 8 e’s max http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_N._Lewis
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4 electron sharing ? overlap of atomic valence orbitals containing single e’s H + H H H atom radius 0.53 Å bond distance 0.74 Å overlap of 1s orbitals increased e- density between nuclei
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5 single bond in H 1s 1 F (1s 2 ) 2s 2 2p 5 z 1s(H) + 2p z (F) • single bond in 2pz(F 1 ) + 2p z (F 2 ) z
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6 double bond in O (1s 2 ) 2s 2 2p 4 z x x 2p z (O 1 ) + 2p z (O 2 ) bond 2p x (O 1 ) + 2p x (O 2 ) bond
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7 Lewis structures description of bonding in molecules (not shape) show all valence e’s (bonding + non-bonding) H 2 O 8 e’s CO 2 16 e’s bond order =1 bond order = 2
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8 formal charge (fc) charge carried by atoms in a molecule if all bonds described as 100% covalent fc = atom core charge - # bonding e pairs - # non-bonding e’s nucleus + core e’s fc(C) = 4 - 4 - 0 = 0 fc(O) = 6 - 2 - 4 = 0
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9 hydroxide anion OH - fc(H) = 1 - 1 - 0 = 0 fc(O) = 6 - 1 - 6 = -1 hydronium cation H 3 O + fc(H) = 1 - 1 - 0 = 0 fc(O) = 6 - 3 - 2 = +1
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10 drawing Lewis structures 1/ total # valence e’s 2/ skeleton of molecule with single bonds 3/ octets for terminal atoms 4/ formal charges 5/ cancel adjacent +/- formal charges by forming multiple bonds 6/ octet rule for Li F (8 valence e’s max)
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11 CO 2
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12 SO 3
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13 SO 4 2- sulfate S(VI) SO 3 2- sulfite S(IV)
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14 NO 3 -
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15 free radicals : molecules with odd # valence e’s NO NO 2
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Chapter-10 - CHAPTER 10 CHEMICAL BONDING nature of covalent...

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