Class07

Class07 - Origins and Nature of Components of Earths Second...

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Origins and Nature of Components of Earth’s Second Atmosphere
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Buell/Girard, “Chemistry”, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1994, p. 37 Earth’s surface fractured to form tectonic plates
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Convection currents move plates http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/10i.html
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Plate motion has major natural consequences Divergent Convergent Transform Thompson, Turk,”Earth Science and Environment”,Saunders,New York, 1995, 19 http://www.extremescience.com/Plate Tectonicsmap.htm
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http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ozsvath/lectures/Plate_Tectonics.htm Convergent subduction causes volcanoes that release internal pressure by blowing gases and solids into the atmosphere
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Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines erupted in 1991, releasing molten lava, and spewing millions of tons of gases, hundreds of millions of tons of ash and rocks, as high as 40 km (25 miles) into the atmosphere. Cunningham/Saigo, “Environmental Science, McGraw Hill, New York, 2001, p. 369
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Volcanic gases became components of earth’s second atmosphere Second Atmosphere Sources: 1) Gases from Big Burp, 2) Collisions with space objects (comets - mostly water) and 3) Gases from volcanic activity Major: NH 3 , CH 4 , and H 2 O Minor: H 2 , N 2 , H 2 S, and CO 2 First Atmosphere H (most), He (some) Lost when sun began fusion Properties of these and other gases can be predicted
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How can the geometries of molecules be predicted? http://wine1.sb.fsu.edu/chm1045/notes/Geometry/VSEPR/Geom02.htm Bond angles ≈ 110º (2 lone pairs) or ≈ 120º (1 lone pair) 180º bond angle Molecules having one central atom and two terminal atoms are linear if there are no lone pairs on central atom or bent if there is(are) lone pair(s) on central atom. All diatomic molecules are linear .
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Molecules having one central atom and 3 terminal atoms are trigonal planar if there are no lone pairs on the central atom or trigonal pyramidal if there is a lone pair on the central atom. http://wine1.sb.fsu.edu/chm1045/notes/Geometry/VSEPR/Geom02.htm ≈ 120º bond angles ≈ 110º bond angles
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http://wine1.sb.fsu.edu/chm1045/notes/Geometry/VSEPR/Geom02.htm ≈ 109.5º bond angles Molecules having one central atom and four terminal atoms frequently are tetrahedral.
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What is the polarity of a molecule? Polarity is a property that indicates whether or
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Class07 - Origins and Nature of Components of Earths Second...

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