Class11

Class11 - Biomolecules: proteins and nucleic acids Amino...

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Biomolecules: proteins and nucleic acids
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hhttp://www.cystinuria.org/resources/education/aminoacids/ Acid: carboxyl group Base: amine group Amino acids can exist in two forms: molecular and ionic Amino acids differ in R- groups Donates H + Accepts H + Molecular form Ionic form is a double ion - called a zwitterion Acids donate H + ions to bases
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http://www.personal.psu.edu/staff/m/b/mbt102/bisci4online/chemistry/charges.gif Twenty R-groups are found in natural protein molecules
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http://fajerpc.magnet.fsu.edu/Education/2010/Lectures/10_Proteins_files/image016.jpg Amino acids link together by peptide bonds, formed by dehydration, to produce polypeptides serine valine tyrosine cysteine Ser-val-tyr-cys 4 amino acids react 4 amino acid residues joined by peptide bonds
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Quaternary structure Tertiary structure http://iitb.vlab.co.in/userfiles/2010-10-18_Protein%20structure_theory.jpg Levels of Structure in Proteins (H-bonding between atoms in backbone) (Interactions of R-groups of one chain: H-bond, ionic, disulfide, hydrophobic) (Interactions of more than one chain) Protein is a polypeptide containing at least 50 amino acid residues.
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Function Example Enzyme catalysis Amylase - Converts starch to simple sugar. Defense Antibodies - Globular proteins that "recognize" foreign microbes. Transport Hemoglobin - Red blood cell protein. Structure Collagen - Forms the matrix of skin, ligaments, tendons and bones. Motion Actin - A muscle protein responsible for muscle contraction. Regulation Insulin - Blood sugar regulation. Functions of Proteins http://science.halleyhosting.com/sci/ibbio/chem/notes/chpt3/protein.htm
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Zumdahl, Chemical principles, Heath,MA, 1992, 697 Active Site Enzymes Active site is an opening in a folded protein structure. Another molecule, called a substrate , may fit into the opening and undergo a reaction. In this case the reaction is breaking peptide bonds. C arboxypeptidase-A 307 acid residues
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Enzymes are proteins that have active sites that function as a catalyst (substance that increases the rate of a reaction without undergoing permanent change itself). Complex requires complementary structures and intermolecular forces http://ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/science/ps/sci/ibbio/chem/notes/chpt8/enzyme.gif Enzymes
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http://ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/science/ps/sci/ibbio/chem/notes/chpt8/enzyme.gif No permanent change in enzyme sucrose glucose + fructose enzyme More than 80,000 enzymes are required for reactions in humans.
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Nucleic acid (DNA) is essentially a blueprint that provides the instructions for synthesizing all the proteins in the host organism A gene is a segment of DNA that provides the blueprint for making one protein so DNA can be thought of as a sequence of genes or blueprints for all the proteins in the organism (Gene#1) - (Gene#2) - (Gene#3) . . . Strand of DNA - blueprint for all proteins in organism
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2011 for the course CHEM 83 taught by Professor Bonk,j during the Fall '08 term at Duke.

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Class11 - Biomolecules: proteins and nucleic acids Amino...

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