Class12

Class12 - Life and the Natural Systems that Support Life...

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Unformatted text preview: Life and the Natural Systems that Support Life Life is the ability of a system to maintain itself in a highly organized state and to grow and multiply with the help of a continual flux of energy and matter supplied by the environment The origin of life is not covered in Chem 83 According to the Oparin hypothesis, the biochemicals produced during chemical evolution somehow came together to produce life and biological evolution followed Although there are several hypotheses concerning how life started, none has gained sufficient acceptance to warrant inclusion in Chem 83 To pursue this further, consider taking an appropriate biology course 2. Living organisms are able to maintain a complex and highly organized internal structure needed to carry out metabolism 1. Living organisms are capable of metabolism- obtaining and utilizing matter and energy from their environment Observations of unique properties of living matter serve as the foundation of biology 3 . Living organisms are able to maintain a relatively constant internal environment required for metabol- ism by sensing changes in their surroundings and making counter responses (called homeostasis ) ( http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch1notes.html ) 4. Living organisms are capable of reproduction- producing off-springs that have attributes similar to those of their parents Sources: Bloomfield, M.M., Stephens, L.J., Chemistry and the Living Organism , 6th ed, NY, Wiley, 1996, pp 1-2. Miller, G.T., Jr., Energetics, Kinetics, and Life : An ecological Approach, Belmont, CA, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1971, p 237. Pauling, L., College Chemistry , 3rd, Freeman, San Francisco, 1964, p. 722. 5. Living organisms are capable of growth by using energy and raw materials from the environment to increase in size, and to change as they grow The three basic components of the original cell theory are: 1. The cell is the basic unit of life in all living things (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39) 2. All organisms are composed of one or more cells (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39) 3. All cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells. (Virchow)(1858) [ Factoids: cells are very small - it would take as many as 50 cells to cover the area of a dot on the letter i. T he average human is composed of around 100 Trillion individual cells!!!] Explanations of observations in biology are based on the Cell Theory www.worldofteaching.com/powerpoints/.../The%20 Cell %20 Theory .ppt http://www.animalport. com/animal-cells.html Cells consist of compartments surrounded by fluid Each compartment (organelle) has a specific role in sustaining life. Fluid facilitates transport of matter and energy needed by organelles. Over 200 types of specialized cells are produced from a fertilized egg in a series of cell divisions....
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Class12 - Life and the Natural Systems that Support Life...

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