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Class20 - Technologies Associated with Pharmaceuticals...

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Technologies Associated with Pharmaceuticals (Drugs) Drug is a substance, other than food or water, that affects how a body functions. Drugs having a positive effect are called medicines.
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Schaumberg, Concerning Chemistry, Wiley,NY,1974,226 and 229 Simplistically, a drug functions as an on/off switch for a biological function. The biological molecule is called a receptor. The drug and receptor must have regions of complementary structures and intermolecular forces so that they will be attracted to and combine with each other to form a drug-receptor complex. How do drugs function (pharmacodynamics)? Complementary structures Complementary intermolecular forces
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Staniski et al, Chemistry in Context,4th,McGraw Hill, IA,2003, 407 Agonist - drug that activates a cell receptor by fitting the receptor and mimicking the natural substrate Antagonist - drug that deactivates a cell receptor by fitting the receptor and blocking it from its natural substrate The drug-receptor complex turns the biological function on or off ON SWITCH OFF SWITCH
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Zumdahl, Chemical principles, Heath,MA, 1992, 697 A second type of receptor is an enzyme The drug fits the active site of the enzyme and then remains in the site blocking the natural substrate molecule from carrying out its biological function. This type of drug is called an enzyme inhibitor. C arboxypeptidase-A OFF SWITCH
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Where do drugs come from? Suchocki,J.,”Conceptual Chemistry”, 3rd, Pearson,Boston,2007,480
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Example: drug known since 400 BC Hippocrates, Father of Medicine, used an extract, prepared by boiling bark from a willow tree in water, to reduce fevers and pain This folk remedy was used for centuries, but was not scientifically studied until 1827 when an active component, salicin, was isolated Snyder, Extraordinary Chemistry, Wiley, NY, 1992, 604 Medicinal chemistry is concerned with the discovery, identification, synthesis, development of new drugs and optimization of existing drugs
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Snyder, Extraordinary Chemistry, Wiley, NY, 1992, 605 Salicin from willow bark reacts with water to produce glucose and salicyl alcohol. In humans, salicyl alcohol is oxidized to salicylic acid which is the active substance that reduces fever (anti- pyretic), pain (analgesic), and inflammation (anti-inflammatory agent).
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Snyder, Extraordinary Chemistry, Wiley, NY, 1992, 606 80 B tablets/yr sold in US Although salicylic acid reduces pain, fever, and inflammation, it is far too corrosive to tissues in the stomach to be taken internally by most people. In 1893 Felix Hofman, a chemist working for the Bayer
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Class20 - Technologies Associated with Pharmaceuticals...

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