Class21

Class21 - Chemistry 83 Adverse Impacts of Technologies...

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Chemistry 83 Class21 1 Adverse Impacts of Technologies Environmental movement begins (1962) Society assumes oversight of technologies Clean Air Act (CAA, 1970) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, 1971) Types of pollution discussed in Chem 83 Nebel/Wright, Environmental Science, 7th, Prentice Hall, NJ, 2000, 477
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Chemistry 83 Class21 2 Cunningham/Saigo, “Environmental Science”, McGraw, 2001, 19. In 1962 society became aware of environmental problems In 1962 Rachel Carson published a book, Silent Spring , in which she correlated the loss of song birds to the bioaccumulation of DDT insecticide in the environment. She died in 1964 without knowing that she had started the environmental move- ment. Her contributions were recognized when she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1980. Congress responded to concerns of public with CAA and EPA • CAA, Clean Air Act, 1970, authorized the development of comprehensive federal and state regulations to limit emission of pollutants into air • EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, was created on May 2, 1971 in order to implement the various requirements included in the CAA of 1970 http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/caa_history.html
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Chemistry 83 Class21 3 Environmental Protection Agency was given a broad charge and broad authority Charge Protect ecosystems Protect materials Protect visibility in troposphere (portion of atmosphere nearest earth) Authority Set standards for pollutants Monitor for violations of standards Enforce compliance with standards (fines) http://www.epa.gov/air/airtrends/sixpoll.html Atmosphere is divided into regions based on changes in temperature. Troposphere and stratosphere make up 99.9% of mass of atmosphere. Cunningham/Saigo, Environmental Science, 6th,McGraw-Hilll, NY, 2001, 376 EPA focused on the atmosphere first
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Chemistry 83 Class21 4 Six principal pollutants were to be regulated by EPA under Clean Air Act (1970) CO - carbon monoxide PM - particulate matter (PM) SO x - sulfur oxides NO x - nitrogen oxides O 3 - ozone (tropospheric) Pb - lead • Each will be briefly described http://www.epa.gov/air/oaqps/peg_caa/pegcaa11.html Risks : CO bonds 200 times more tightly to hemoglobin than does oxygen causing oxygen deprivation to living cells. Can cause death. Hill/Kolb, Chemistry for Changing Times, 7th, Prentice Hall, NJ,1995, 353 Carbon monoxide (CO) Source : Burning fossil fuels in limited oxygen, 2 C 8 H 18 + 17 O 2 18 H 2 O + 16 CO Natural fate : 2 CO + O 2 2 CO 2 (slow) 7th, Prentice Hall, NJ,1995, 353
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Chemistry 83 Class21
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2011 for the course CHEM 83 taught by Professor Bonk,j during the Fall '08 term at Duke.

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Class21 - Chemistry 83 Adverse Impacts of Technologies...

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