Class23

Class23 - Chemistry 83 Adverse Effects of Current...

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Chemistry 83 Class23 1 Adverse Effects of Current Technologies on Water and Land Resources Oversight by society: For an excellent summary of laws and executive orders that authorize oversight and authority to EPA see: http://www.epa.gov/lawsregs/laws / Laws for Water Quality • In 1972 Clean Water Act (CWA) directed EPA to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nation's waters • In 1974, Safe Drinking Water Act (SDW) directed EPA to establish standards for safe drinking water and required all operators of public water systems to comply with these standards http://ipl.unm.edu/cwl/fedbook/fwpca.html
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Chemistry 83 Class23 2 EPA Implementation of CWA and SDW • EPA defined water pollution as "any biological, chemical, or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired uses [drinking, fishing, boating].” • EPA has had to delegate/share responsibility with states to fulfill these responsibilities • Only a few representative pollutants regulated under this law will be covered in Chem 83 http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/pollutants.html Biological pollutants: bacteria, viruses, and parasites • Usually from human and animal wastes • Cause diseases such as typhoid (bacteria), hepatitis A (viral), dysentery (parasite) • EPA uses as standard 0 coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters of drinking water – Coliform bacteria are not harmful to humans, but indicate when other bacteria are present http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/pollutants.html
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Chemistry 83 Class23 3 Chemical Pollutant: Nutrients Buell/Girard, Chemistry, Prentice Hall, NJ, 1994, 374 Eutrophication is the excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants due to oversupply of nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). Decomposers deprive fish of dissolved oxygen causing a fish kill. http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/research/ggr/MineWasteGeochemistry/AcidMineDrainage.html Chemical Pollutants: Acid Mine Drainage FeS 2 + 15/4 O 2 + 7/2 H 2 O --> 2H 2 SO 4 + Fe(OH) 3 Waste rock from mining operations can undergo reaction with air to produce acid mine drainage (AMD). Acid can release other chemical pollutants (Al, Hg, Pb, Cd, and As) from waste rock into water supply.
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Chemistry 83 Class23 4 http://www.commondreams.org/headlines01/images/1107-01.jpg The Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 23, 1989 spilling 11 million gallons of crude oil.
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Class23 - Chemistry 83 Adverse Effects of Current...

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