Class24

Class24 - Adverse Effects of Current Technologies on Humans...

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Unformatted text preview: Adverse Effects of Current Technologies on Humans Laws that protect society: OHSA, CPSA, HMTA, EPCRA, TRI Hazardous Substances in the Chemical Manufacturing Industry Hazardous substances are materials that can pose a short-term or long-term danger to personal health or the environment if they are not properly managed (contained) World production of commercial chemicals is about 300 M tons of 100,000 different substances/yr, of which only 5000 are considered to be hazardous Laws that protect citizens from hazardous substances O ccupational S afety and H ealth A ct (OSHA, 70) regulates safe use and storage of chemicals in workplace, implemented by Department of Labor [http://www.epa.gov/reg5oopa/defs/html/osha.htm] C onsumer P roduct S afety A ct (CPSA, 72) protect the public "against unreasonable risks of injuries associated with consumer products. [http://www.cpsc.gov/about/faq.html)] H azardous M aterials T ransportation A ct (HMTA, 75) regulates safe transportation of chemicals, implemented by Department of Transportation [http://safety.science.tamu.edu/dot.html] E mergency P lanning and C ommunity R ight-to-Know A ct (EPCRA, 86): requires manufacturers to inform communities of hazards and to work with citizens to provide plans for possible emergencies. EPA T oxics R elease I nventory (TRI, 88): requires companies to disclose information about amounts of toxic chemicals they release into the air and water and dispose of on land. EPA Types of Hazards and OSHA Warning Label OSHA uses a diamond-shaped warning label to warn of four major types of hazards in case of an emergency http://www.uigi.com/nfpa_labelcode.gif http://www.hclco.com/images/34a.gif U.N. has proposed universal hazard labels that are based on pictograms http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/EHSRM/HAZCOM/special.html The following slides briefly describe each of these types of hazardous substances. Flammable Hazard Flammable - describes any solid, liquid or vapor that ignites easily and burns rapidly Fire can destroy tissue and/or release toxic gases http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/chemicals/flammable/flam.html Reactive hazard A chemical explosive is a compound or a mixture of compounds that decomposes rapidly to produce large amounts of heat and gases The force of explosion is due to a large increase in gas volume that occurs rapidly (10-25K ft/sec) Example: 2NI3(s) N2(g) + 3I2(g); H = -77 kcal The greater the increase in moles of gases, the greater the volume of gases available for expansion The more moles of N2, the more heat to expand volume http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/explosives.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinitrotoluene High Molecular Weight RDX http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMX Royal Demolition Explosive - in C4 plastic explosive http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RDX http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octanitrocubane http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitoglycerine When absorbed in sawdust = dynamite...
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2011 for the course CHEM 83 taught by Professor Bonk,j during the Fall '08 term at Duke.

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Class24 - Adverse Effects of Current Technologies on Humans...

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