Class25

Class25 - Course Evaluation first 15 minutes 1. Please pick...

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Unformatted text preview: Course Evaluation first 15 minutes 1. Please pick up an evaluation form from an aisle desk in the front row 2. Complete the form: Course number is Instructor 1 is Bonk Code numbers for majors are on colored sheets on the front desk 1. Place completed form in a blue envelope on an aisle desk in the front row Sustainability Sustainability is meeting the needs of today's society without compromising the ability of future societies to meet their needs. ( Brundtland, G. H., et al. Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.) What factors affect sustainability? In 1973 Roger Gymer suggested three factors Population (how many consumers?) Affluence (how much is consumed by each person?) Use of imperfect technologies (what are the negative impacts of each technology on resources, humans, environment, and other life forms?) Gymer, Roger G.,"Chemistry: An Ecological Approach", NY, Harper & Row, 1973, 756 http://maps.grida.no/go/collection/vital-waste-graphics-2 (US, UK) (Russia, Cuba, Mexico) The answer depends on level of consumption (affluence): Economies are divided by the World Bank using 2006 mean annual income as follows: low income , $935 or less; lower middle income , $936 - $3,705; upper middle income , $3,706 - $11,455; and high income , $11,456 or more. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTER NAL/DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMDK: 20420458~menuPK:64133156~pagePK:64 133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419 ,00.html P o p u l a t i o n / b i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e How many humans can be sustained by current technologies? http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/energy_consumption_per_capita_2004 How can science and engineering promote sustainability? Must focus first on energy technologies since energy cannot be recycled. Must replace unsustainable fossil fuels with sustainable energy sources. Jacobson 1 has reviewed and ranked energy sources based on impacts on global warming, pollution, water supply, land use, wildlife, health issues and sustainability as follows: 1. Wind 2. Concentrated solar 3. Geothermal 4. Tidal 5. Solar photovoltaic 6. Wave 7. Hydroelectric 8. Coal with C capture (untested) 9. Nuclear 10. Natural gas 11. Oil 12. Corn and cellulosic material 1 Jacobson, M. Z. , Energy Environ. Sci., 2009, 2, 148- 173 Sources 1-7 are sustainable since they are perpetual sources of energy based on wind, water, and solar (WWS). They serve as basis for his proposal for attaining sustainable energy. What energy sources are sustainable? Delucchi and Jacobson* have published a plan for attaining sustainable energy worldwide by 2030, using only green technologies that already exist Use only perpetual energy sources based on water, wind, and solar (WWS) to provide heat, electricity, and transportation To compensate for the fact that WWS sources do not produce electricity 24/7, use batteries and/or hydrogen to store WWS electrical energy and provide stationary energy on demand...
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2011 for the course CHEM 83 taught by Professor Bonk,j during the Fall '08 term at Duke.

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Class25 - Course Evaluation first 15 minutes 1. Please pick...

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