This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Gertrude Belle Elion - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, number 6/3/11 2:52 PM Chemistry Explained Search
Powered by JRank Foundations and Applications
Chemistry » Di-Fa » Gertrude Belle Elion - Chemistry Encyclopedia Gertrude Belle Elion
Ads by Google
Effective Drug Treatment - Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation Programs. Call: (888) 494-8536! www.TheRecoveryPlace.net/Treatment #1 Addiction Rehab Center - Adult, Addiction Rehab & Detox All Private Rooms, Insurance OK TransformationsTreatment.com Drug Treatment Centers - Change Your Life In A Safe Retreat. Call Us 24/7. Insurance Welcome. www.TheTreatmentCenter.com Addiction Treatment Now - Treatment is evolving. Get help now in the Privacy of a Doctor's Office - TurnToHelp.com Like Sign Up to see what your friends like. AMERICAN CHEMIST AND MEDICAL RESEARCHER
The Nobel Prize Committee rarely honors the work of scientists who develop new drugs. However in 1988, in awarding the
Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine to Gertrude Elion and her colleague at the Burroughs Ads by Google
Durham DNA Test Center
Advanced, 16 Markers Paternity Test
Use Discount Before Expires
Ulcerative Colitis Research
Take Control Of Ulcerative Colitis.
Get Info At Healthline.com® Today.
Healthline.com/Ulcerative-Colitis American chemist Gertrude B. Elion (right) with her colleague George H.
Hitchings, recipients, with Sir James W. Black, of the 1988 Nobel Prize in
physiology or medicine, "for their discoveries of important principles for
drug treatment." Drug Treatment Wellcome Pharmaceutical Laboratories, George Hitchings, it recognized the The Most Successful Drug & Alcohol work of this pair that led to the development of a series of important drugs, Treatment Center. 70% Success Rate! among these drugs used to treat malaria, the leukemias, viral infections, and FreedomDrugRehab.com/DrugTreatment some forms of impaired immune response. http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Di-Fa/Elion-Gertrude-Belle.html Page 1 of 3 Gertrude Belle Elion - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, number 6/3/11 2:52 PM Injured from Acne Drug? Born on January 23, 1918, in New York City, Gertrude Elion graduated from Crohn's Disease, Ulcerative Colitis Hunter College, in New York, in 1937 with an A.B. degree in chemistry. Acne Medication Injury Evaluation. Unsuccessful in her efforts to enroll in graduate school, she worked for MedicationLawyers.net several years in pharmaceutical companies and as a teacher in New York
City high schools while continuing her education part time. She earned an
M.S. degree from New York University in 1941. In 1944 Elion joined the Wellcome Research Laboratories, a subdivision of Burroughs Wellcome, as a senior research
chemist; by 1967 she was head of their experimental therapy section. Probably the only woman to hold a top-ranking
position in a major pharmaceutical company, in 1967 and for many years after, she is said to have felt that she experienced
no discrimination at Burroughs Wellcome.
Her early work focused on the metabolism of nucleic acids. In 1944 little was known about these compounds beyond the
fact that deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) is the main component of the cell nucleus, and that DNA is composed of repeating
units, called nucleotides, whose structures incorporate heterocyclic bases (that is, organic compounds with rings
containing nitrogen atoms; the four bases involved are adenine , cytosine , guanine , and thymine ). Elion's hope was
that an understanding of the synthesis of nucleic acids in normal cells (and eventual comparisons with nucleic acid
synthesis in malignant cells and in disease-causing microorganisms) would suggest ways to block selectively the
metabolism of cancer cells or of pathogens without harming normal cells. She therefore proceeded to synthesize a number
of compounds that resembled and that might mimic the substance used in DNA synthesis and in this way might block the
formation of DNA in harmful cells.
Working with 2,6-diaminopurine (2,6-DAP), a derivative of adenine, Elion found that it inhibited nucleic acid synthesis in
cancer cells and was effective in treating mouse leukemia. During the early 1950s, following the elucidation of the structure
of DNA, interest in nucleic acid metabolism became intensified, and scientists investigating it, including Elion and her
group, found themselves at the forefront of biochemical research. Elion synthesized 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), another
derivative of adenine, which also inhibited DNA synthesis. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in
1953 for the treatment of acute childhood leukemia. Its success led her to probe its exact mode of action using newly
developed radiochemical techniques, a breakthrough in drug-related research that advanced considerably the rational
design of therapeutic agents. Elion studied 6-MP as a possible inhibitor of antibody-forming cells. As a result, its
derivative Imuran (azathioprine) has been used as an antirejection drug in kidney transplants.
Other notable research by Elion led to the development of the antiviral drug Acyclovir (acycloguanosine), which has been
used to treat the herpes simplex viruses. Her studies during the 1970s showed that Acyclovir inhibited viral replication by
interfering with viral DNA synthesis. The subsequent development of AZT (azidothymidine), which works in much the
same way as Acyclovir against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was carried out at Burroughs Wellcome after
Elion retired in 1983 (although she worked after 1983 as a consultant).
In addition to the 1988 Nobel Prize (which she shared with Hitchings and British scientist Sir James Black), Elion received
other awards and several honorary doctorates. Active in public service, she served on both national and international
health committees. She died on February 20, 1999, in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
SEE ALSO D EOXYRIBONUCLEIC A CID (DNA) ; DNA R EPLICATION ; N UCLEIC A CIDS ; N UCLEOTIDE . Mary R. S. Creese Bibliography
http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Di-Fa/Elion-Gertrude-Belle.html Page 2 of 3 Gertrude Belle Elion - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, number 6/3/11 2:52 PM Alcamo, I. Edward (1997). "Gertrude Belle Elion (1918– )." In Women in the Biological Sciences: A Biobibliographic
Sourcebook, ed. Louise S. Grinstein, Carol A. Biermann, and Rose K. Rose. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Altman, Lawrence K. (1999). "Gertrude Elion, Drug Developer, Dies at 81." New York Times 148 (51,442; February
Goodman, Miles (1993). "Gertrude Belle Elion (1918– )." In Women in Chemistry and Physics: A Biobibliographic
Sourcebook, ed. Louise Grinstein, Rose K. Rose, and Miriam H. Rafailovich. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Ads by Google
Physician Rx Dispensing - Point of sale pharmacy solution for private, Medicare, and Workers Comp - www.drdispense.com
Raleigh Kidney Research - Visit Our State of the Art Facility for Advanced Kidney Treatment. - www.WakeNephrology.com User Contributions: Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:
Name: E-mail: Security Code: Display email publicly Comment: (50-4000 characters) Send Gertrude Belle Elion - Chemistry Encyclopedia forum
« Einstein, Albert Equations, Chemical »
Copyright © 2011 Advameg, Inc. http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Di-Fa/Elion-Gertrude-Belle.html Page 3 of 3 ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 10/19/2011 for the course CHEM 83 taught by Professor Bonk,j during the Fall '08 term at Duke.
- Fall '08