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Unformatted text preview: PHY 53 — Summer 2010 Duke Marine Laboratory 1. Some questions about the vector product C = A × B .
a. Assignment 8 Prove the rules given in the notes for the magnitude and direction of C
from the deﬁnition in terms of components. Let A and B lie in the xy
plane with A along the xaxis and B having direction with angle θ relative
to A. b. One requires θ to be the angle between A and B that is no larger than π .
Why? c. d. 2. What are the rules for the vector products of the unit vectors (i,j,k)?
Prove directly from the deﬁnition in terms of components that
A × B = −B × A . {Use the situation in (a).] Consider the effects of the gravitational force on the particles of a system. The ith
particle, of mass mi at position ri experiences a gravitational force mig(ri ) ,
where g(ri ) is the gravitational ﬁeld at that point. If the gravitational ﬁeld is
uniform, then g(ri ) is the same at the location of all the particles. Call it g.
a. If the gravitational ﬁeld is uniform, show that the total gravitational force
on the system is simply Mg , where M is the total mass. b. The gravitational torque about the CM from the force on the ith particle is
τ i = ri′ × mig(ri ) , where ri′ is the position of the particle relative to the CM.
Show that if the gravitational ﬁeld is uniform the total gravitational torque
about the CM is zero. 1 PHY 53 — Summer 2010 3. Duke Marine Laboratory Comment on the validity of these statements about forces and torques.
a. If two forces obey F1 + F2 = 0 , then they give zero torque about any point. b. If the total force on a body is zero and the total torque from those forces is
zero about some point, then the total torque from those forces is zero
about all points. c. Two forces acting along two separate parallel lines obey F1 + F2 = 0 . There
is a point between those lines about which the total torque is zero. d. If F1 + F2 = 0 and the forces both act along the same line, then they give
zero total torque about any point. 4. An object with a circular cross section of radius
R and moment of inertia about its symmetry
axis I = β mR 2 is rolling down an incline of
angle θ . The coefﬁcient of static friction is µs .
We wish to ﬁnd the maximum value of θ for
which the object will not slip as it rolls. θ a. Assume the object does not slip, so that static friction acts at the point of
contact. If the object starts from rest as shown, what is the direction of the
static friction force? [What direction (clockwise or counterclockwise) must
the angular acceleration α be?] b. Write the 2nd law for the acceleration a down the incline, in terms of the
static friction force fs . c. Write the rotational 2nd law in terms of I, α , and fs . d. Impose the rolling condition relating a to α . e. Eliminate a and solve for fs in terms of θ and known constants. f. Find the normal force N. g. Use fs ≤ µs N to ﬁnd the maximum value of θ in terms of µs and β . Ans: tan θ ≤ µs ⋅
h. β +1
.
β For a hoop β = 1 , for a solid cylinder β = 1 / 2 , and for a solid sphere β = 2 / 5 . Rank the maximum values of θ for these objects. 2 PHY 53 — Summer 2010 5. Duke Marine Laboratory In the situation of the previous problem, let the object start from height h above
the bottom of the incline.
a. b. Let h = 50 cm and let the length of the incline be 2 m. You release from rest
at the same time a hoop of mass 0.1 kg and radius 2 cm, and a cylinder of
mass 0.2 kg and radius 1 cm. Find the time each takes to reach the bottom.
[Find the speed at the bottom and the average speed.] Ans: Hoop:
4 / 5 ≈ 1.79 s; cylinder: 2 3 / 5 ≈ 1.55 s. c. 6. If it rolls without slipping from rest, what is its speed at the bottom? Ans:
v 2 = 2 gh / (1 + β ) . Do the same calculation for two cylinders, the one in (b) and one of mass
0.4 kg and radius 3 cm. The yoyo shown in two
views is resting on a ﬂoor
that has a large enough
value of µs for the yoyo to
roll without slipping. The
string is pulled at the angle
shown with tension T. The
yoyo has mass m and
moment of inertia I about
its symmetry axis. The
radius of the axle is r and that of the outer rim is R.
a. θ If θ = 0 what is the acceleration (magnitude and direction) of the CM?
[What is the direction of the friction force?] Ans: a = T ⋅ r /R 1 − r /R
m + I / R2 b. c. Repeat if θ = π / 2 . Ans: a = T ⋅ For what value of θ is the acceleration zero? Ans: cosθ = r / R . m + I / R2 3 , to left. , to right. PHY 53 — Summer 2010 7. Duke Marine Laboratory Some questions about rolling.
a. A ball of mass m, radius R, and moment of inertia 2
mR 2 ,
5 rolls without slipping at speed v on a horizontal ﬂoor. It starts up a frictionless incline.
How high does it go before starting back down? Ans: h = v 2 / 2 g .
b. The same ball rolls without slipping
on the track shown, moving
vertically at the end, at distance h
below the level at which it started
from rest. How high does it go in the h 5
air before falling? Ans: h′ = 7 h . c. 8. 9. Now the ball is on the inside of a
vertical circular track, rolling up the
side as shown. There is enough
friction to make it roll without slipping. What
direction is the friction force at this point? [Consider
the angular acceleration.] Ans: Upward. The ball is now released from rest on
the track shown. It rolls without
slipping around the inside of the
circular portion which has radius
d >> R . Find the minimum height h
that will allow the ball to roll across the
top of the circle. Ans: h = 2.7 d . h The door shown has two hinges
supporting it. Over time, what happens?
a. b. The screws holding the top hinge to the door and the wall
tend to work loose, because the door pulls on the hinge. c. Both sets of screws tend to pull loose, because the door pulls
on both hinges. d. There is no force pulling either set of screws loose. The screws holding the bottom hinge to the door and the wall
tend to work loose, because the door pulls on the hinge. [Consider torques about the bottom hinge.]
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2011 for the course PHYSICS 53L taught by Professor Mueller during the Spring '07 term at Duke.
 Spring '07
 Mueller
 Physics

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