BIOL306-1

BIOL306-1 - WWW _ _ . December2009 @ ' C l - Final...

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Unformatted text preview: WWW _ _ . December2009 @ ' C l - Final Examination Neural Basis of Behaviour BIOL 306 22 December, 2009, 9: 'am Examiner: RUdiger Krahe- Assoc Examiner2' Joseph Dent Students” —WIIIIIIIII INSTRUCTIONS: I o This is a CLOSED BOOK examination. a You are permitted TRANSLATION dictionaries ONLY. - STANDARD CALCULATOR permitted ONLY. I - Answer_the questions in the. examination booklets provided. c This examination consists of 20 short ansWer questions of a totai of 4 pages, inciuding the cover page. ' ' I . This examination is PRINTED ON BOTH SIDES of the paper a This examination paper MUST BE RETURNED _ Course: BIOL 306 Page 1 of4 2100306;- 1. (4 points) Kupferman and Weiss developed two criteria a neuron has to fulfill to be _ considered a"‘command neuron” for a certain behavioUr. You have prepared an animal for an _ electrophysiological experiment, in which you can recOrd intracellularly frOm the presumed command neuron and .in which you can observe whether the behaviour in question is triggered or not. Name the two criteriaéfil} propose tests to find out whether they are fulfilled by the neuron you are cording from (one test for each criterion). ' 2. (7 points total) When you tickle yourself, the resulting sensation is usually less ticklish than when somebody else is tickling you. A. (3 points) A corollary discharge mechanism has been hypothesized to underlie this difference in sensation. Explain the hypothesis. B. (4 points) Describe an experiment to test this hypothesis. 3. (4 points) You-want to construct an echolocation system to detect approaching mosquitoes in total darkness. What physical constraints do you have to consider when choosing the frequency of the sound pulses that the system is going to emit? Name the constraints AND explain how they affect the utility of your echolocation system. 4. ‘ . (3 points) AsJFM bats approach a prey item, their echolocation calls change. Describe two of these changes AND the advantage of these changes? 5. (1 point) What is the wavelength of a lO—Hz sound in air (under standard conditions)? 6. (5 points) Certain bats rely on acoustic glints in their foraging behaviour. What are “acoustic _ glints’.’ AND how are they created? 7. (10 points total) The following questions relate to escape reSponses. A. (6 points) Escape responses require fast information transmission in the nervous system. Name AND describe three mechanisms by which speed of neural information flow can be increased in vertebrates. B. (4 points) Describe two roles of inhibition in the crayfish escape circuitry and'explain how they are implemented (there may by multiple ways of how a given function can be achieved; one example is sufficient for each function). I 8. (6 points total)_The graph below shows an experiment'performed on the South American weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia. The black trace at the top shows the firing frequency of the spinal motor neurons innervating the electric organ of a fish that has been injected with curate. The light grey lineat 250 Hz corresponds to an artificial electric signal that mimics Course: BIOL 306 ' i . ' Page-1 of4 Bra; 306 - .the spatial structure of the fish’s own electric organ discharge (S 1). The medium grey line that moves up and down between 246 Hz and 254 Hz corresponds to an artificial electric signal (S2) that is played to mimic the presence of a nearby neighbour. aoo ' E g 270 5" a 'o “7 20500 " 40006 '“' 66600 Time (msee) A. (1 point) What was the consequence of injecting curare for the generation of the electric organ discharge? ' B. (1 point) Name the behaviour displayed by the fish. ' C. (4 points) Explain why this experiment suggests that Eigenmannia does not use a cOrollary discharge mechanism that is linked to the control of its electric organ. 9._ (4 points total) Neurdn B receives inhibitory synaptic input from neuron A. You, hypothesize that that the neuromodulator Proctolin changes the strength of the synapse between A and B. Propose (describe) an experiment to test your hypothesis. 10. (6 points) In 1789, 9 English mutineers along with 11 kidnapped Tahitian women took the HMS Bounty to Pitcairn Island in the South Pacific and started a colony. That colony remained largely isolated until its population peaked at 233 individuals in 1937. if in 1937 you compared the variance in behavior of the Pitcairn islanders to 233 individuals chosen at random. from thepopulation in England, which do you think w0uld have greater variance? Why ? What ifthe mutineers had kidnapped 11 English women? 11. (6 points) Why do social worms become solitary when you reduce the ambient oxygen concentration to 6%? Why don’t solitary worms become social when you raise the oxygen concentration to 21%? ‘ ' , 12. (6 points) In C. elegans, removal of'odorant activates the AWC chemosensory neuron, which. in turn both activates the AIB interneuron and inhibits the AW interneuron. What might be the advantage of doing both — activating AIB and inhibiting AlY? Course: BIOL 306 - ' - Pagefi of4 13. ‘ 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Course: BIOL 306 lira, @295 (8 points) It is estimated that 600 million years ago the day was only 22 hours long. This is because tidal interactions between the earth and moon are slowly decreasing the rate of earth’s rotation thus making the days longer. Give examples of two different clock genes that might have been mutated to allow animals to adapt to the longer circadian period we see today. Explain what prOperties of the clock proteins the mutations Would affect and how . that would lengthen the ciock period. (4 points) Do you think fruit flies sleep? If so, why do you think so?_lf not, what (Specific) experimental result would convince you they do?’ ' (3 points) Suppose you were staying up late to cram for your final exam and you were starting to feel sleepy. If you injected orexin into your brain, what would happen and what is your reason for concluding that? (8 points) Give three exampEes of neuronal circuits that are present in both sexes but mediate sexually dimorphic behavior because they are only (or primarily) active in one sex. Explain the data that support your answer. (4 points) Male fruit flies exhibitdominance hierarchies. How might you determine experimentally whether the neural circuit that mediates the internal representation of an animal‘s status (Le. whether it is dominant) and the circuit that mediates aggressive behavior are different? (4 points) If ablated the POMC neurons of my arcuate nucleus, do you suppose E would get ' fatter or thinner? Why? (4points) in principle, could a honey bee use the waggle dance to lie? If not, why not? If so,' how would it do that? (3 points) What is the evidence that FOXPZ is a "language gene"? Page flof4 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course BIOL 306 taught by Professor Pollack during the Spring '08 term at McGill.

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BIOL306-1 - WWW _ _ . December2009 @ ' C l - Final...

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