criminology study guide

criminology study guide - What is the primary distinction...

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What is the primary distinction for defining deviant behavior as criminal? • Criminologists view deviant behavior as any action that departs from the social norms of society Deviance thus includes a broad spectrum of behaviors ranging from the most socially harmful to the relatively inoffensive • A deviant act becomes a crime when it is deemed socially harmful or dangerous; it then will be specifically defined, prohibited, and punished under the criminal law With respect to the NCVS, since crime victims are asked directly about crime, all crimes are measured, whether or not they are reported to the police. Which of the following best describes peers according to the degree to which deviant behavior is conducted individually versus collectively, whether there is backstage support, and the division of labor associated with the group? ? ? Peers: Cooperate with each other Minimal/low division of labor Recruit & socialize new members Length of ties & salience vary Shared participation On which definition does much of America’s criminal system seem to be based? Hagan’s Definition Any definitions of crime must include: Behavior formally considered a crime by law Range of behaviors treated as crime while not technically a violation of the law Recognize behaviors cut across time & place and vary in location both inside & outside of the law. Which of the following is not given as a reason why crime is at a 50 year low? Crime experts have identified a number of social, economic, personal, and demographic factors that influence crime rate trends: • age • economy/job • social malaise – single parent, racial conflict • abortion • guns • gangs • drug use • media • justice policy • medical technology Including assault, rape, and robbery victimization, strangers commit less than half of these offenses.- TRUE?
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Self report surveys, with few exceptions: aren’t accurate? How would you characterize the limited gang activity depicted in the movie? The functionalist perspective: America is home to a wide range of immigrants and persons of various nationalities and ethnicities. Each group has its own social heritage. With this diversity comes conflict. One way in which conflict emerges is a disagreement on some form of social custom. How are women treated within each group (battery)? How children are disciplined (abuse)? Do the groups equally value life or does one have a far lower standard (aggravated assault; homicide)? The fact that some many groups can have so many different views is one indicator that crime is _____. The biggest difference between detached observation and participant observation is: Some people may actually initiate the confrontation that eventually leads to their injury or death.
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