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Study Guide for Geo Final

Study Guide for Geo Final - Study Guide for Geo Final More...

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Study Guide for Geo Final: More than a body of knowledge….. Science is “a way of knowing” Chapter “Zero” •Science is a both a Body of Knowledge and a Way of Knowing •Science is rooted in Faith – a belief that nature has an orderly structure –a uniquely Judeo-Christian concept •Implies that study of effects of natural processes can lead to an understanding of causes –physical events have physical explanation –no divine or supernatural intervention allowed •The only scientifically acceptable information about nature is that obtained by OBSERVATION or EXPERIMENT •Scientific Method or “Normal Science” is the “way of knowing” what is true •Scientific Method or Normal Science – the Path from Observation to Theory to Paradigm •Observation –“facts” as we see ‘em •Generalization ( hypothesis formulation ) –tentative explanation based on observation & experiment –uses inductive reasoning •Verification ( challenges, testing ) –Test it - does it fit all observations? –How do I prove it false? •Prediction ( theory or paradigm ) –Apply hypothesis or theory to new situation to predict result –uses deductive reasoning •Essence of Science is that no explanation, no matter how believable or appealing, is closed to question •hypothesis – tentative explanation based on observation or experiment, subject to further testing and criticism –cannot be proved absolutely true but must be falsifiable •there must be a test result of which would prove it false –only consistent with all known data •hypothesis gains credibility if it explains new data or predicts outcome of new experiments •set of hypotheses that survives numerous challenges and accumulated substantial body of observational and experimental support – elevated to theory or scientific model •Normal Science is Guided by Paradigm “unifying theory” •Paradigm (or theory) –An integrated, comprehensive explanation of many “facts” –has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted
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–can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena •Paradigm is scientist’s “view of the world” –embodies all scientific belief & bias –determines kinds of observations made –limits kind of conclusions permitted –Induction leads to new view of nature •Paradigm ensures not radical change –knowledge progresses gradually •When Normal Science fails…….Scientific Revolution •How do we interpret observations that contradict predictions of the Paradigm? –scientists are human •may not take discordant observation seriously –requires courage and imagination to “see the world from a new point of view” •Scientific Revolution – New paradigm replaces old –Complete new set of “rules of the game” emerge suddenly –No compromise with the old view •Contradictory observation becomes “the expected” under the new paradigm •Even paradigms subjected to critical testing and review
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