geosci exam study guide

Geosci exam study - Chapter 11 • Organism types o Producers(autotrophs organisms that make their own food Use energy from sunlight or in some

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11: • Organism types: o Producers (autotrophs): organisms that make their own food Use energy from sunlight or, in some cases, energy derived from chemicals in their environment to manufacture organic compounds such as carbohydrates o Consumers (heterotrophs): get their food by feeding directly or indirectly on producers o Carbon source: Photosynthesis: organisms such as plants and algae use energy from sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates (such as glucose) and oxygen • Water + carbon dioxide + energy glucose + oxygen • 6H2O + 6CO2 + ENERGY C6H12O6 +O2 the oxygen is released into the atmosphere, and the glucose is stored as an energy source for future use by the organism. An important group of microorganisms, known as the cyanobacteria, also use photosynthesis to make carbohydrates; in fact they originated the process chemo? • Biogeochemical cycle basics (phosphorous cycle) o Figure 11.4- pg 281 o Tectonic processes uplift phosphate-containing rocks o Phosphate-containing rocks are weathered and eroded o Plants take up phosphorus from soil o Animals eat plants o Decomposers break down animal and plant matter and return phosphorus to soil o Phosphate-bearing compounds in fertilizers dissolve into water o Phosphorus leaches from soil into water o Runoff carries sediment to rivers, lakes, and oceans o Phosphate- containing minerals accumulate to form phosphate-containing rock • Microbes: o Single-celled organisms, which include bacteria, archaea, some fungi, some algae, and most protists- also called microorganisms Need water to live and reproduce Can inhabit any nook or crannys Most genetically diverse group of organisms on Earth • Universal tree of life: o The organized hierarchy of ancestors and descendants (in a tree form) o When genes for all types of microorganisms are compared, there are enormous differences in their genetic content o The genes of all types of organisms, including plants and animals, when compared it is realized that the differences among groups of microorganisms were much greater than the difference between plants and animals, including humans • Common ancestors: o The single root of the universal tree of life (figure 11.5 pg 282) is called the universal ancestor This universal ancestor gave rise to 3 major groups or domains, of descendants; the Bacteria, the Archaea, and the Eukaryota •Archaea and bacteria had Earth to themselves for over a billion yr (3500-2200 Ma) •Eukaryote – organism with cell with genetic material organized within distinct cell nuclei –Eukarya split off from Archaea somewhere bewteen 2200 - 1600 Ma • Bacteria: o Appear to have evolved first- all of their descendants have remained single-celled microorganisms • Archaea: o Appear to have evolved first- all of their descendants have remained single-celled microorganisms • Eukaryota: o Thought to be the youngest branch of the tree, have...
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2011 for the course GEO 1050 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at UConn.

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Geosci exam study - Chapter 11 • Organism types o Producers(autotrophs organisms that make their own food Use energy from sunlight or in some

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