Geoscience Lab Study Guide

Geoscience Lab Study Guide - Geoscience Lab Study Guide:...

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Geoscience Lab Study Guide: Minerals: A mineral is: o Naturally occurring o Crystalline solid o Has a specific chemical composition Id properties: 1. Luster: how a fresh mineral surface reflects light a. Metallic: use streak plate a.i. Streak: color of mineral b. Nonmetallic: b.i. Vitreous- glassy b.ii. Adamantine-diamond 2. Color: highly variable, very unreliable a. Is it light or dark? 3. Hardness- resistance to scratching a. Reflects strength of chemical bonds between atoms b. To test- scratch against each other- scratch against glass- if scratches glass= hard; if it doesn’t scratch glass=soft 4. Form/habit: how crystals GROW (shape) a. Reflects geometric (tabular, dodecahedral, etc) 5. Cleavage: how crystals BREAK a. Break along a plane b. Reflects weaker bonds in crystal lattice c. Looking for: c.i. Cleavage angles (90 or 60) c.ii. good, platy, cubic, etc. c.iii. turn the rock and see if different faces light up at the same time 6. others: halite-table salt calcite- reacts strongly with hcl dolomite reacts weakly with hcl EASY TESTS: HCL, magnet, hematite streak ID MINERALS: o silicates: o quartz: light, hard, no cleavage, (conchordal fracture) o k-feldspar: pink, hard, good cleavage (2, 90 degrees) o
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o na-plag: light, hard, 90 degree cleavage (opaque, diff from other clear ones) o o o o Mica: Muscovite: light, platey cleavage (1 dir) Biotite: dark, platey cleavage (1 dir) o o Garnet: little redish black clumps- diff than anything else o Pyroxene: dark, hard, 2 cleavages at 90 degrees o Amphibole: dark, hard, 2 cleavages at 60 degrees o Olivine: GREEN, looks like granite o Calcite: effervesces with hcl, rhomahedral, cleavage in 3 dir, 60 degrees, clear Igneous: o Formed from the cooling and solidification of magma/lava
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Geoscience Lab Study Guide - Geoscience Lab Study Guide:...

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