01-26-2011 Lecture Notes

01-26-2011 Lecture Notes - PeriodicTrends The periodic...

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Periodic Trends We will consider trends both down groups and across periods The periodic table is arranged into groups and periods: Ionization Energy Electron Affinity Atomic Radius Elements in the same group have the same valence electron configuration and exhibit similar reaction chemistry. The chemistry of the elements across a period show interesting chemical trends.
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Ioniza/on Energy Ionization Energy (IE) is the amount of energy that is required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion X( g ) X + ( g) + e Corresponds to removing the highest energy (least tightly held) electron Consider Magnesium (Mg): Mg: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Mg Mg + + e I 1 = 735 kJ/mol ( 1 st IE ) Mg + : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Mg + Mg 2+ + e I 2 = 1445 kJ/mol ( 2 nd IE ) Mg +2 : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 0 Mg 2+ Mg 3+ + e I 3 = 7730 kJ/mol ( 3 rd IE ) Mg +3 : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 3s 0 The core electrons for a given atom are bound much more tightly to the atom and cost more energy to remove In general, I 1 < 1 2 < 1 3 < 1 4 …..
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Ioniza/on Energy Ionization Energy (IE) is the amount of energy that is required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion X( g ) X + ( g) + e Corresponds to removing the highest
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2011 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Fitts during the Fall '08 term at UPenn.

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01-26-2011 Lecture Notes - PeriodicTrends The periodic...

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