SABIC CHEM 101 Chapter 4 - Part 3

SABIC CHEM 101 Chapter 4 - Part 3 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Types
of
Chemical
Reac1ons 
 Most reactions that take place in aqueous solutions can be grouped into one of three types: •  Precipita*on
Reac*ons
 •  Acid–Base
Reac*ons
 •  Oxida*on–Reduc*on
Reac*ons
 Defini1ons 
 Arrhenius: Acids produce H+ ions (protons) in water Bases produce OH- Bronsted/Lowry: Acids are proton donors Bases are proton acceptors In aqueous media strong acids dissociate fully to form H+(aq) ions HX H 2O H+(aq) + X-(aq) In aqueous media strong bases dissociate fully to form OH-(aq) ions MOH H 2O M+(aq) + OH-(aq) Acid-Base Reactions Acids react with bases. The “driving force” for this reaction is the formation of water: NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Acid-Base reactions are sometimes called NEUTRALIZATIONS Examples 
 Acid‐Base
Titra1on 
 •  Titra1on
 –
 delivery
 of
 a
 measured
 volume
 of
 a
 solu*on
 of
 known
 concentra*on
 (the
 *trant)
 into
 a
 solu*on
 containing
 the
 substance
 being
analyzed
(the
analyte).
 •  Equivalence
 point
 –
 enough
 *trant
 added
 to
 react
 exactly
 with
 the
 analyte.
 •  Endpoint
 –
 the
 indicator
 changes
 color
so
you
can
tell
the
equivalence
 point
has
been
reached.
 Acid‐Base
Reac1ons 
 Performing
Calcula0ons
for
Acid–Base
Reac0ons
 1.  List
the
species
present
in
the
combined
solu*on
 before
any
reac1on
occurs,
and
decide
what
 reac*on
will
occur.
 2.  Write
the
balanced
net
ionic
equa*on
for
this
 reac*on.
 3.  Calculate
moles
of
reactants.
 4.  Determine
the
limi*ng
reactant,
where
appropriate.
 5.  Calculate
the
moles
of
the
required
reactant
or
 product.
 6.  Convert
to
grams
or
volume
(of
solu*on),
as
 required.
 The same principles apply here that we have been developing so far in the course!!! Examples 
 What volume of 0.450M NaOH is required to react completely with 60.0 mL of 0.150M HCl?  We’re looking for the Equivalence Point--endpoint in the titration when #moles acid = #moles base Moles HCl = (0.0600 L) x 0.150 mole/L = 0.00900 moles HCl = 0.00900 moles H+ Thus, we need 0.0009 moles of OH- to neutralize this acid. V x 0.450 mole/L = 0.00900 mole OHV = 0.0200 L or 20.0 mL NaOH Examples 
 For
the
*tra*on
of
sulfuric
acid
(H2SO4)
with
 sodium
hydroxide
(NaOH),
how
many
moles
of
 sodium
hydroxide
would
be
required
to
react
with
 1.00
L
of
0.500
M
sulfuric
acid
to
reach
the
 endpoint?

 

 
 

 Examples 
 Examples 
 Examples 
 Homework 
 Do the following Chapter 4 problems: 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2011 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Fitts during the Fall '08 term at UPenn.

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