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Unformatted text preview: r, ) of P to its rectangular coordinates ( x,y ) is illustrated in Figure 1.5 , from which we see that x = r cos y = r sin . (1.3) The derivation of Equation ( 1.3 ) from Figure 1.5 requires a pinch of salt: we have drawn as an acute angle and x , y , and r as positive. In fact, when y is negative, our triangle has a clockwise angle, which can be interpreted as negative . However, as long as r is positive , relation ( 1.3 ) amounts to Eulers denition of the trigonometric functions ( Calculus Deconstructed , p. 86). To interpret Figure 1.5 when r is negative , we move  r  units in the opposite direction along . Notice that a reversal in the...
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 Fall '08
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 Calculus

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