Engineering Calculus Notes 158

Engineering Calculus Notes 158 - 146 CHAPTER 2. CURVES or,...

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Unformatted text preview: 146 CHAPTER 2. CURVES or, in terms of coordinates, √ b x = 1 + a 2 3 cos θ − 2 sin θ √ . y = 2 − a cos θ + b 2 3 sin θ 2 The general relation between a plane curve, given as the locus of an equation, and its possible parametrizations will be clarified by means of the Implicit Function Theorem in Chapter 3. Analyzing a Curve from a Parametrization The examples in the preceding section all went from a static expression of a curve as the locus of an equation to a dynamic description as the image of a vector-valued function. The converse process can be difficult, but given a → function − : R → R2 , we can try to “trace out” the path as the point moves. p → As an example, consider the function − : R → R2 defined by p x(t) = t3 y (t) = t2 with domain (−∞, ∞). We note that y (t) ≥ 0, with equality only for t = 0, so the curve lies in the upper half-plane. Note also that x(t) takes each real value once, and that since x(t) is an odd function and y (t) is an even function, the curve is symmetric across the y -axis. Finally, we might note that the two functions are related by (y (t))3 = (x(t))2 or y (t) = (x(t))2/3 so the curve is the graph of the function x2/3 —that is, it is the locus of the equation y = x2/3 . This is shown in Figure 2.15: as t goes from −∞ to ∞, the point moves to the right, “bouncing” off the origin at t = 0. A large class of curves can be given as the graph of an equation in polar coordinates. Usually, this takes the form r = f (θ ) . ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2011 for the course MAC 2311 taught by Professor All during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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