Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: General Principles of...

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General Principles of Pathophysiology Pathology- the study of disease and its causes. Pathophysiology- the study of how diseases alter normal physiology. Cellular Adaptations - how cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems adapt to illness or injury. Atrophy - a decrease in cell size resulting from a decreased workload. Hypertrophy - an increase in cell size resulting from an increased workload. o Dilation - enlargement. Hyperplasia - an increase in number of cells resulting from an increased workload. o Mitosis - cell division w/ division of the nucleus, this is the process by which the body grows. Metaplasia - replacement of one type of cell by another type of cell that is not normal from that tissue. Dysplasia - a change in cell size, shape, or appearance caused by an external stressor. Forms of Cellular Injury Hypoxia - oxygen deficiency o Ischemia - a blockage in the delivery of oxygenated blood to the cells Chemicals Infectious agents - bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. o Pathogen- a microorganism capable of producing infection or disease. Inflammatory reactions - Immune system responds w/ inflammation. Physical agents - extreme temperatures, electricity, atmospheric pressure changes, radiation exposure, noise, or mechanical stressors Nutritional factors- Genetic factors- DNA Manifestations of cellular injury Anabolism - the constructive phase of metabolism in which cells convert nonliving substances into living cytoplasm. Catabolism - the destructive phase of metabolism in which cells break down complex substances into simpler substances w/release of energy. Cellular swelling - swelling of a cell caused by injury to or change in permeability of the cell membrane with resulting inability to maintain stable intra- Fatty change - a result of cellular injury and swelling in which lipids invade the area of injury; occurs most commonly in the liver. Cellular Death Apoptosis - response in which an injured cell releases enzymes that engulf and destroy itself; one way the body rids itself of damaged and dead cells. Necrosis
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2011 for the course PARAMEDIC 101 taught by Professor Bator during the Spring '11 term at Columbus State Community College.

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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: General Principles of...

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