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Chapter 37 - Chapter 37 Infectious Disease Infectious...

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Chapter 37: Infectious Disease Infectious Disease - illness caused by infestation of the body by biological organisms. Index case - the individual who 1 st introduced an infectious agent to a population. Local agencies are the first line of defense in disease surveillance and outbreak. Microorganisms Normal flora - organisms that live inside our bodies without ordinarily causing disease. Are part of the host defenses that help us keep disease-free by creating environmental conditions that are not conducive to disease-producing microorganisms. Pathogen - organism capable of causing disease. Opportunistic pathogen - ordinarily nonharmful bacterium that causes disease only under unusual circumstances. o Bacteria - microscopic single celled organisms that range in length from 1-20 micrometers. Gram stain - method of differentiating types of bacteria according to their reaction to a chemical stain process. Types of Bacteria Spheres (cocci)- Staphylococci, Streptococci Rods - Enterobacteriaceae Spirals - Spirochetes, Vibrio Bacterial Toxins - toxins that are produced by bacteria Exotoxin - toxic waste products released by living bacteria. Endotoxin - toxic products released when bacteria die and decompose. Antibiotics - substances that destroy or inhibit microorganisms Bactericidal - capable of killing bacteria. Bacteriostatic - capable of inhibiting bacterial growth or reproduction. o Viruses - disease-causing organism that can be seen only w/an electron microscope. Viruses are Obligate Intracellular Parasites - organism that can grow and reproduce only within a host cell. o Other Microorganisms Fungus - plant-like microorganism Protozoan - single-celled parasitic organism w/flexible membranes and the ability to move. Parasite - organism that lives in or on another organism. Pinworm - parasite that is 3-10mm long and lives in the distal colon. Hookworm - parasite that attaches to the host’s intestinal lining. Trichinosis - disease resulting from an infestation of Trichinella spriralis (contracted by eating raw or inadequately cooked pork products, most commonly sausage.
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o Transmission Routes of Disease Reservoir - any living creature or environment that can harbor an infectious agent.
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