BIOPSYCH_2 - LECTURE 10 7/12/11 OUTLINE Synesthesia:...

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LECTURE 10 7/12/11 OUTLINE Synesthesia: generally involuntary experience, occurs over and over again. -perception is different from sensation. Sense something, and perceive different sensory modalities. -Not actively sensing, but perceiving taste. -sensation is about collecting data about what’s going on in the external world. -perception is about making sense of that data SENSORY SYSTEMS -somatosensory -gustatory (taste) -Olfactory (smell) -Vameronasal (no evidence that system present in humans, but in rodents. This system conveys information about pheromone)-located close to olfactory bulb. -Auditory -Vestibular(tells you where you are in space) -Visual not only sensory system. Hypothesis; (some species of hummingbirds travel from Canada—mexico; Birds can travel long distance; some specialized sensory system that can detect magnetic fields) SENSORY SYSTEM: GENERAL PRINCIPLES Labeled Lines: Ex) Photoreceptors in the retina (rods/cones) transduce information, sends info to rest of the brain via optic nerve -Somatosensory info from the face is transduced via specific receptors beneath skin, info travels to other parts of the brain via trigeminal nerve. -auditory information transduced by inner hair cells, and this info conveyed to rest of brain via vestibulocochlear nerve. Different sensory system convey information to various parts of the brain via different pathways. Despite Systems are anatomically distinguishable, it is possible to form association between diff sensory modalities. Synesthesia—particular sensation leads to perception of different sensory modality -Tone could induce perceptions of specific colors. Or tastes. -Letters could invoke color sensation It doesn’t have to be between two different sensory systems –between two different sensory modalities. --if someone sees letters and perceives color; they sense form; letter—but perceive color Within the visual system, there are different sensory modalities; form VS color. ORANGE was default color for pain Particular stimulus evokes particular perception. Even with her eyes closed, she could perceive orange. SYNESTHESIA -usually unidirectional; someone might touch something&perceive tone. But if they hear tone, they won’t perceive sensation. -syn—gather, esthes—perceive (to perceive together) -consistent throughout individual’s life; consistent perception CAUSES OF SYNESTHESIA -NOT clear; suggested that too many connections between cortical areas -ex) between somatosensory and visual cortex, there are connections relaying these two (Hypothesized have too many connections between these cortical areas, and this accounts for simultaneous perception of particular sensory modality) --Hyperconnectivity between some cortical areas might be due to a lack of pruning in development (pruning is process whereby synapses form, they get lost, and reform—form many connections but they don’t lose connections which give rise to hyperconnection) --some have speculated this may due to a possible pruning failure. However, no or very weak evidence for this claim.
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BIOPSYCH_2 - LECTURE 10 7/12/11 OUTLINE Synesthesia:...

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