BIOPSYCH_4 - LECTURE 24 OUTLINE plasticity-experience dependent plasticity-non-associative learning-LTP/LTD-pavlovian conditioning BASIC CONCEPTS

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LECTURE 24 OUTLINE plasticity -experience dependent plasticity -non-associative learning -LTP/LTD -pavlovian conditioning BASIC CONCEPTS IN THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MEMORY -synaptic plasticity important -areas devoted to particular regions of body can expand or retract depending on environmental exposure THERE ARE MANY KINDS OF SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY -formation of new synapse -rearrangement of synapse (turn-over of synapses) GENERAL CONCEPTS IN SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY -there are temporal association that might change the effectiveness of synapses EXPERIENCE-DEPENDENT PLASTICITY -animals are not forced to learn association between two stimuli as in the case of pavlovian conditioning -adult rats placed in variable environments (standard, impoverished, enriched) -their brains look very different EXPERIENCE-DEPENDENT PLASTICITY -brains look very different -AchE= enzyme that degrades Ach, we find lot more of these in the cortex of environmentally enriched rats -bigger isocortex -more complex dendritic arborization; form more synapses. EXPERIENCE-DEPENDENT PLASTICITY -rats in enriched have more elaborate branches for dendrites -in particular, it’s the basal dendrites which have more elaborate connections (than apical dendrites) EXPERIENCE-DEPENDENT PLASTICITY -increased dendritic spine density; (little knobs at tips of dendrites)—dendritic spine synapse with other neurons ; means that rats in enriched condition form More synapses than in impoverished condition EXPERIENCE-DEPENDANT PLASTICITY -Golgi staining of large pyramidal neuron -can see fuzzy knobs protruding out of dendrites (dendritic spines) -form/disappear over time; these form synapses with another cell -if we find more of these, we can say they form more synapses with other cell. EXPERIENCE-DEPENDENT PLASTICITY -unlike in the case pavlovian conditioning, where animals learn form association between two stimuli, experience-dependent plasticity doesn’t rely on learning association between two stimuli directly, we’re just putting those in environmentally enriched condition and it’s changing anatomy of the cells(having those cells form increased dendritic spine density and more elaborate basal dendritic branches; that’s why we are calling experience-dependent as opposed to learning-related plasticity) - not only do they(environmentally enriched) have more elaborate dendrites, elaborate dendritic spines, but they also do better, in general, in number of tasks.
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SIMPLE NON-ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING IN INVERTEBRATES: APLYSIA(see slug) -animals are not put in situation where they have to form association -sensitization/habituation -see slug have very simple nervous system than mammalian/avian species; NON-ASSOCIATIVE FORMS OF LEARNING -Habituation; ex)rat exposed to tone; at first it might be startled, and tone comes over and over; startled response decrease over time(change of behavior as a result of repeated exposure to particular stimulus) -Sensitization: ex) aversive shock to animal causes it to shock; over time it might freeze more and more
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2011 for the course BIONB 2230 taught by Professor Charvet during the Summer '11 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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BIOPSYCH_4 - LECTURE 24 OUTLINE plasticity-experience dependent plasticity-non-associative learning-LTP/LTD-pavlovian conditioning BASIC CONCEPTS

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