NS4400(2) - LECTURE 1-nutritional genomics interaction of...

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LECTURE 1 - nutritional genomics ; interaction of nutrients with genes -molecular mechanisms by which excess visceral adipose tissue (excess fat around abdomen) can lead to metabolic aberrations. -adipocytes produce and secrete proteins like inflammatory markers like hormones and fatty acids that can cause damage to our tissues(liver and pancreas) -over time, you get clustering of metabolic markers that are commonly referred to as metabolic syndrome -excess visceral adipose tissue lead to metabolic insult (unfitness) -characterized by disorders in lipids (ex) having high triglycerides, high LDL, low HDL-cholesterol (good cholesterol carrier), signs of inflammation, insulin resistance and high blood pressure) (excess adipose tissue contribute to these;) obesity is a risk factor for most of the chronic diseases that plague our society today -Mediterranean style dietary pattern can mitigate some of these metabolic insults -It emphasizes the consumption of olive oil(predominantly found fat: monounsaturated fat; have desirable effects on our lipid profile -also emphasizes consumption of fish on weekly basis(omega-3 fatty acids; beneficial effect on lipid profile) -there’s also anti-inflammatory component to Mediterranean style diet Adverse effects on lipids -Increased risks of cardiovascular disease; *atherosclerosis= Hardening of blood vessels in heart -Build-up of plaque in the arteries, which in it of itself does not kill one -Increase in blood pressure from this narrowing -what ends up damaging and what people die from is when the plaque erupt and blood clot forms; that blood clot is what prevents blood from getting to the heart; that’s when heart attack occurs Dietary Fats -not all fats are equal - unsaturated fat tend to be cardio-protective -it’s the saturated fat (no double bonds in structures) that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease - trans fatty acids (found in baked goods) also increase the risk. ; unsaturated fatty acids and they have the hydrodation process (got rid of unsaturated/double bond) -Mono/poly unsaturated fat can be beneficial in terms of our lipid profile Hypertension -component of metabolic syndrome -risk does relate to body mass index (BMI) -BMI less than 25 (desirable range) 30 or more (classified obese) -we see that as BMI rise, so does the risk of developing high BP -BMI less than 25= reference group *odds ratio is in comparison with reference group(odds ratio of 1.0) -reference group here is BMI less than 25 -In our age—once BMI is above 30, then our risk of developing high BP increases about 8 times(7.8) -in her age group—BP is still related to obesity(BMI), but not quite as much -when above 60—relationship almost disappears ; as we age, we have subtle injury to our kidney which play main role in regulating BP -so obesity becomes less of a determinant in this age -but for younger person, it is a main determinant of BP -Ppl with high BP has increased risk of cardiovascular disease -because of narrowing of arteries, ppl with cardiovascular disease have increased risk of high BP *Sodium
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2011 for the course NS 4410 at Cornell.

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NS4400(2) - LECTURE 1-nutritional genomics interaction of...

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