Lecture 8 - translation apparatus

Lecture 8 - translation apparatus - Translation Apparatus...

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Translation Apparatus Translation involves the biochemical translation of genetic information, stored and transmitted in the 4-letter alphabet language of DNA, into the 20-letter alphabet language of proteins.
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Components of Translational Apparatus Centered on multiple functions of RNA mRNA: genetic code tRNA: a bilingual translator molecule rRNA: enzyme for peptide formation miRNA: regulators of translation
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The Genetic Code The sequence relationship between bases in genes or mRNAs and the amino acids in proteins. The code is triplet. Two amino acids are designated by single codons Multiple codons for a single amino acid represent degeneracy in the genetic code
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General features of the genetic code: 1. The code is "commaless"-Codons are read sequentially by tRNA molecules, which serve as adapters in protein synthesis. This implies that there are no spaces between adjacent codons. 2. Degeneracy of the code: There are sixty-four possible codons and twenty amino acids. Sixty-one codons do code for amino acids. For most amino acids, there is more than one code word. This is called degeneracy of the code. 3. Specificity of the code "Wobble hypothesis“. (continue)
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Perfect adherence to Watson- Crick base pairing demands absolute specificity of a given tRNA and a given codon. tRNA is a bilingual translator molecule, conceptually and physically bridges the gap between nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence.
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Wobble Hypothesis As shown above, the codons for tyrosine are UAC, UAU, and the anticodon
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2011 for the course NS 3200 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Lecture 8 - translation apparatus - Translation Apparatus...

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