Test 2 Review - Test 2 Reviews / Ch. 3-5 1. Different...

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Test 2 Reviews / Ch. 3-5 1. Different classes carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, Fibers A. Simple Carbohydrates A.i. Monosaccharide : a carbohydrate made up of a single sugar unit A.i.1. Glucose : blood sugar, found in cells A.i.1.A. Function: circulates in the blood, 6-carbon monosaccharide, primary form of carbohydrate used to provide energy in the body A.i.2. Fructose : fruits and vegetables A.i.3. Galactose : milk sugar A.ii. Disaccharides : a carbohydrate made up of two sugar unit A.ii.1. Maltose : made up two glucose molecules A.ii.2. Sucrose : made up a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose, a disaccharide A.ii.3. Lactose : contain one glucose and one galactose B. Complex Carbohydrates- Polysaccharides B.i. Glycogen : storage form of glucose in humans and animals liver and muscles) B.ii. Starches : glucose molecules, storage form of carbohydrate in plants, provides energy B.iii. Fibers : cannot be digested by human digestive enzymes B.iii.1. Soluble fiber B.iii.1.A. dissolves in water or absorbs, can be broken down by intestinal microflora B.iii.1.B. combine with bile, eliminate it, B.iii.1.C. prevente elevated blood cholesterol B.iii.2. Insoluble fiber B.iii.2.A. does not dissolve in water, cannot be broken down by bacteria in the large intestine B.iii.2.B. provide bulk in the intestine to ease elimination, B.iii.2.C. prevent constipation, diverticulitis, appendicitis, colon cancer 2. Glycemic indexes A. Different carbohydrate containing foods are absorbed at different rate B. Simple carbohydrates and potato starch are absorbed fast and make a large spike in the blood sugar (a high glycemic index) causing a high insulin response C. Beans, legumes and some mixed foods are absorbed slower and have lower glycemic index 3. Function Insulin : getting glucose to the cells- transport A. Problems of glucose metabolism A.i. Type 1 diabetes: pancreases loss of insulin, autoimmune problem
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A.ii. Type 2 diabetes: increased body fat cells, resistance to insulin delivery of glucose to the cell B. Help glucose enter the cells for energy C. Help excess blood glucose return to liver, muscles to form storage and form- glycogen
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2011 for the course MGT 101 taught by Professor Karen during the Spring '11 term at Missouri State University-Springfield.

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Test 2 Review - Test 2 Reviews / Ch. 3-5 1. Different...

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