Test 5 review - World Thought Review Final History section...

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World Thought Review – Final History section: 1. Know the following related to Islam: the three historical textual, purpose driven faiths & their common ancestor, Muhammad, Quran, Kaaba , Mecca, Islamic view of Jesus and of God, Five Pillars, Dome of the Rock as a symbol, Sufism & Rumi. Why did Islam spread so quickly? Identify Charles Martel, & Tours. Judaism – Follow the Torah or Tanac. Christianity – Follow Jesus and the Bible. Islam – Follow Muhammad and the Quran. See next two terms. Muhammad – 570-632 – He was a trader from Arabia. He was raised a polytheist. He had contact with both Jews and Christians and was drawn to monotheistic thinking. He rejected Christianity because of what he considered “tritheism” (triune; the trinity) and Judaism because Jews would not accept his claim that he was receiving visions from God via the angel Gabriel. He also resented Jewish scripture in Genesis that has God choosing the younger son Isaac over Ishmael. He fought to organize the tribes and clans into a faith that said Allah was God and other gods were false. At first it was rejected, but in 622 it was accepted following the hijra, or flight, to the city of Medina. Quran – Was written following Muhammad’s death. It is considered to be the final/perfect written revelation of God and teaches that Muhammad is the last and greatest of the prophets. It also teaches that God has no son. Kaaba – The holiest shrine. Mecca – The holiest city. Islamic view of Jesus and of God – They believe Jesus was a prophet and miracle worker but not God’s son and they reject the trinity. They do not believe Jesus was crucified – and say he was caught up to heaven. The thought that Jesus was crucified was deemed disrespectful to the prophet. Five pillars – 1.) Acknowledge Allah alone as God and Muhammad as His prophet = the creed. 2.) Give alms. 3.) Pray five times daily. 4.) Fast during Ramadan. They would fast during the day and then eat at night for a month. 5.) Make a pilgrimage to Mecca (if you are physically able to do so). Dome of the Rock – It is like a Quran in stone: verses in mosaic on the walls proclaim that God has no son. The dome makes both a political and spiritual statement of Islamic power over Judaism and Christianity. Orthodox Jews would like to get rid of the rock shrine. It is one of the most controversial pieces in Jerusalem. Sufism – The Sufis are a branch of mystical Muslim poets that are much more open to other traditions and other teachers. The whirling dervishes are a branch of the Sufi. Rumi – The Sufi’s best known poet and is widely read today. Rumi has been read in the west for centuries and there have been informed references to him in the work of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Hegel and many other eminent writers. But in recent year the popularity of his work in the west has increased to a surprising extent: according to the Christian Science Monitor, Rumi ranked as America’s best-selling poet in 1997. His poems invite a personal response – look at the paradoxes and analogies.
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