CH110-120 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes

CH110-120 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes - Chapter 1 Fundamental...

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1-1 1.1 Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds 1.2 Measurements in Chemistry 1.3 Chemical Problem Solving 1.4 Counting Atoms: The Mole 1.5 Amounts of Compounds 1.6 Aqueous Solutions 1.7 Writing Chemical Equations 1.8 The Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions 1.9 Yields of Chemical Reactions 1.10 The Limiting Reagent Chapter 1 Fundamental Concepts of Chemistry
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1-2 1.1 Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds Atoms All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms . All atoms of a given element have identical chemical properties that are characteristic of that element. Atoms form chemical compounds by combining in whole-number ratios. Atoms can change how they are combined, but they are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. Atoms are conserved during physical and chemical transformations – atoms are neither created nor destroyed during a chemical or physical process Mass is conserved during physical and chemical transformations – mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical or physical process
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1-3 Atomic Structure: Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons Protons and electrons carry charges (positive and negative) Neutrons have no charge, but they do have mass Mass of proton = 1.67 x 10 -27 kg This is very small. It is more convenient to use another unit. 1 amu = 1.67 x 10 -27 kg (amu – atomic mass unit)
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1-4 Elements A substance that contains only one type of atom is called a chemical element . Each has A unique name A unique number (Z)
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1-5 Periodic Table of the Elements
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1-6 Atomic Structure: Isotopes Isotopes - Atoms with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons . (Are they the same element?) Example: isotopes of hydrogen
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1-7 Atomic Notation A – atomic mass # of protons + # of neutrons Z – atomic number # of protons X – element symbol X A Z Examples: O 16 8 Co 59 27 U 238 92
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1-8 Clicker Question: How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are there for carbon-14, which is used for radiocarbon dating? a) 6 protons, 6 neutrons, 6 electrons b) 6 protons, 8 neutrons, 8 electrons c) 8 protons, 6 neutrons 8 electrons d) 12 protons, 14 neutrons, 12 electrons e) WTF? What is the most abundant (and stable) isotope of carbon?
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1-9 Unstable Nuclei - Radioactivity Some isotopes are not stable, and decompose over time. These isotopes are radioactive – they emit particles as they decay, and are converted into more stable isotopes. What makes a nucleus unstable?
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1-10 Unstable Nuclei - Radioactivity Unstable nuclei decay over time, emitting energetic particles (radiation) in the process. There are three types of radiation: 1. Alpha ( α ) particles – positively charged particles, actually helium nuclei. 1. Beta ( β ) particles – negatively charged particles, actually energetic electrons 2. Gamma ( γ ) radiation – high energy photons (particles without mass) that are the byproduct of positron emission .
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1-11 Isotopic Abundance Isotopic Abundance : the percent abundance of each isotope of an element.
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