CH110-120 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes

CH110-120 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes - 1-11.1 Atoms Molecules...

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Unformatted text preview: 1-11.1 Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds1.2 Measurements in Chemistry1.3 Chemical Problem Solving1.4 Counting Atoms: The Mole1.5 Amounts of Compounds1.6 Aqueous Solutions1.7 Writing Chemical Equations1.8 The Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions1.9 Yields of Chemical Reactions1.10 The Limiting ReagentChapter 1 Fundamental Concepts of Chemistry1-21.1 Atoms, Molecules, and CompoundsAtoms•All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.•All atoms of a given element have identical chemical properties that are characteristic of that element.•Atoms form chemical compounds by combining in whole-number ratios.•Atoms can change how they are combined, but they are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions.•Atoms are conserved during physical and chemical transformations– atoms are neither created nor destroyed during a chemical or physical process•Mass is conserved during physical and chemical transformations– mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical or physical process1-3Atomic Structure: Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons•Protons and electrons carry charges (positive and negative)•Neutrons have no charge, but they do have mass•Mass of proton = 1.67 x 10-27kg–This is very small.–It is more convenient to use another unit.–1 amu = 1.67 x 10-27 kg(amu – atomic mass unit)1-4Elements•A substance that contains only one type of atom is called a chemical element.•Each has–A unique name–A unique number (Z)1-5Periodic Table of the Elements1-6Atomic Structure: Isotopes•Isotopes- Atoms with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. (Are they the same element?)Example: isotopes of hydrogen1-7Atomic Notation•A – atomic mass –# of protons + # of neutrons•Z – atomic number –# of protons•X – element symbolXAZExamples:O168Co5927U238921-8Clicker Question:How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are there for carbon-14, which is used for radiocarbon dating?a) 6 protons, 6 neutrons, 6 electronsb) 6 protons, 8 neutrons, 8 electronsc) 8 protons, 6 neutrons 8 electrons d) 12 protons, 14 neutrons, 12 electronse) WTF?What is the most abundant (and stable) isotope of carbon?1-9Unstable Nuclei - Radioactivity•Some isotopes are not stable, and decompose over time.•These isotopes are radioactive– they emit particles as they decay, and are converted into more stable isotopes.•What makes a nucleus unstable?1-10Unstable Nuclei - RadioactivityUnstable nuclei decay over time, emitting energetic particles (radiation) in the process. There are three types of radiation:1. Alpha (α) particles– positively charged particles, actually helium nuclei.1. Beta (β) particles– negatively charged particles, actually energetic electrons2. Gamma (γ) radiation– high energy photons (particles without mass) that are the byproduct of positron emission.1-11Isotopic Abundance•Isotopic Abundance: the percent abundance of each isotope of an element....
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2011 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Maly during the Fall '10 term at Wilfred Laurier University .

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CH110-120 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes - 1-11.1 Atoms Molecules...

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