CH110-120 Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

# CH110-120 Chapter 4 Lecture Notes - Chapter 4 Atoms and...

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Chapter 4 – Atoms and Light 4.1 Characteristics of Atoms 4.2 Characteristics of Light 4.3 Absorption and Emission Spectra 4.4 Properties of Electrons 4.5 Quantization and Quantum Numbers 4.6 Shapes of Atomic Orbitals 4.7 Sunlight and the Earth

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4.1 Characteristics of Atoms Atoms: possess mass contain positive nuclei contain electrons occupy volume attract one another combine to form molecules
Example 4-1 The density of lithium, the lightest metal, is 0.534 g/cm 3 . Estimate the volume occupied by a single atom in solid lithium. Suggested Problems: Section Exercises: 4.1.1-4.1.2 End of Chapter Exercises: 4.1

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7.2 Characteristics of Light The best tool for studying the structure of atoms is electromagnetic radiation . What we call light , is just one form of electromagnetic radiation. Wavelength ( λ ) - the distance between two successive crests (units: meters or nanometers) Frequency ( ν ) - the number of waves passing a certain point over a unit of time (units: s -1 = Hz) Amplitude: height of the wave measured from the axis of propagation, a measure of intensity
c = λν Where c is the speed of light c = 2.99792458 x 10 8 m/s

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Example 4-2 The FM radio station transmits its signal at 88.1 MHz. What is the wavelength of the radio signals? Suggested Problems: End of Chapter Exercises 4.7, 4.9

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Amplitude and Intensity A bright light is more intense and has greater amplitude than a dim light. The two waves shown here have the same wavelength, but different amplitudes. The amplitude is represented by the height of the wave at its crest.
The Photoelectric Effect How is it that your car heats up in the summer? There must be energy associated with the sunlight. Light is wave-like AND has energy .* The energy is dependent on the frequency and intensity of the light .

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The Photoelectric Effect Shining light on a metal can lead to electrons being ejected from the metal. In the setup above, the electrons are detected because a current is induced
The Photoelectric Effect Several phenomena can be observed: Below a certain frequency, no electrons were observed, no matter what the intensity. The energy of the ejected electrons increased linearly with the frequency of light (E ν ) The number of emitted electrons increased with light intensity. All metals show the same pattern, but each metal has a different threshold frequency.

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Several phenomena can be observed: Below a certain frequency, no electrons were observed, no matter what the intensity. The energy of the ejected electrons increased linearly with the frequency of light (E ν ) The number of emitted electrons increased with light intensity. All metals show the same pattern, but each metal has a different
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## This note was uploaded on 10/14/2011 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Maly during the Fall '10 term at Wilfred Laurier University .

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CH110-120 Chapter 4 Lecture Notes - Chapter 4 Atoms and...

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