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September 27, 2010 - Descriptive Statistics Correlation...

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Descriptive Statistics: Correlation - When two variables are related to each other, they are correlated. - Correlation = numerical index of degree of relationship correlation expressed as a number between 0 and 1 can be positive or negative numbers closer to 1 (+ or -) indicate stronger relationship. Correlation: Prediction, Not causation - higher correlation coefficients = increased ability to predict one variable based on the other SAT/ACT scores moderately correlated with first year college GPA - 2 variables may be highly correlated, but to causally related alcohol problems and salary positively correlated does $$ cause drinking problems? the third variable problem – stress. They have higher paying jobs because they have more responsibilities. Inferential Statistics: Interpreting Data and Drawing Conclusions - hypothesis testing: do observed findings support the hypothesis? are findings real or due to chance? - Statistical significance = when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low very low = less than 5 chances in 100/ 0.5 level (BY CHANCE) Evaluating Research: Methodological Pitfalls - Sampling bias - Placebo effect – happens when a person’s belief is true and that’s why it happens. Eg. Giving someone a pill telling him or her it’s a drug, and they believe it will have one effect on them, and then they believe it has actually effected them.
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