Genreal Chemistry PowerPoints

Genreal Chemistry PowerPoints - Outline 1 24-SEP-2009 1....

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1 Outline 1 24-SEP-2009 1. Why study Chemistry? 2. Matter – Definition & Classifying, Skill: classify (substances vs. mixtures) 3.Measurements, Numbers, Units Dimensional Analysis (Factor-Label method) 4. Scientific Process Based in Observations (Measurements) 5. Temperature conversions 6. Measurements Significant Figures
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2 Chemistry Why study chemistry? Used in all sciences from astronomy to zoology. Creation of thousands of new products. Vaccines and drugs. Greater food production. Find substitutes for scarce resources. Chemical reactions part of life itself: breathing, eating, thinking.
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3 Definition: (What Is Chemistry?) Chemistry: Study of matter . Includes changes in matter and accompanying changes in energy. Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass . Energy - “ability to do work.” Work – ability to move an object .
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4 Classifying Matter
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5 Substances and Mixtures Substance : Fixed composition as in pure elements and compounds. Ex: sodium, iron(III) oxide, sucrose Mixture: Variable composition, two or more substances. Ex: salt water, gasoline, milk, grape juice Separable into substances through physical processes.
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6 Substances and Mixtures Physical change : Change in form (state) but not in kind. Same substance. Can be reversed by just changing temperature. No new substances formed. Ex: Melting ice, H 2 O(s) → H 2 O(l) ice (solid) turns into water (liquid)
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7 Substances and Mixtures Chemical change ( reaction) : substance(s) changed into new substance(s). (May include change in state (physical change)). (Can’t be reversed by just changing temperature.) New substances formed. Example: rusting of iron 4 Fe(s) + 3 O 2 (g) → 2 Fe 2 O 3 (s) iron and oxygen form an iron oxide Physical change accompanied chemical change.
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8 Central Theme Macroscopic properties (things we can see) are results of submicroscopic properties (things we can not see, atoms & molecules). Our World Atoms’ World
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9 Chemical Constitution Substances and Mixtures Label as to substance (element or compound), heterogeneous mixture or solution. a. seawater b. sulfur c. fluorine d. beach sand e. sodium chloride
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10 Chemical and Physical Changes Prob: classify as to physical or chemical change. a. dissolving sugar in water b. rusting of iron c. burning of wood d. evaporation of alcohol
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11 Scientific Process Observe Draw Conclusions (Hypothesize) If Hypothesis “Survives”, it becomes a Law Ex: Conservation of Mass (Ch.2, p.44f) Mass of Reactants = Mass of Products See Quiz #1, Next Slide
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Genreal Chemistry PowerPoints - Outline 1 24-SEP-2009 1....

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