lect_10oct29f09 - Outline 10 29-OCT-2009 1...

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1 Outline 10 29-OCT-2009 1. Review- Types (Exchange & redox ), Precipitation 2. Acids & Bases Definition (Arrhenius), Strong & Weak? 3. Writing Equations -Neutralization Molecular, total & net ionic, Stoichiometry 4. Redox Definitions, rules
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2 Review: Types of Chemical Reactions 1. Metatheses (Exchange) a. Precipitation Reactions (soluble?) b. Acid-base Reactions (strong?) 2. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (redox) (O.N. changes?) Two main reaction types.
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3 Solubility Rules (“common” Ionic Compounds) [‘ordinary’ temperatures] (Follow sequence* ) AGAIN! A. Soluble 1. Group IA and NH 4 + 2. NO 3 - ,C 2 H 3 O 2 - , ClO 4 - (most), ClO 3 - B. Mostly Soluble 1. (Cl - , Br - , I - ) (except Ag + , Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ ,Cu + ) F - (except Pb +2 and group 2A) { Group 7A (halides)}. 2. SO 4 2- (except Ag + , Pb 2+ , group 2A Ca +2 and down) C. Insoluble 1. PO 4 3- , CO 3 2- , O 2- , S 2- (except 2A), OH - (except group 2A, Ca +2 and down) *Earlier ‘Rules’ trump later ones. Print this slide and use in problem solving.
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4 Precipitation Reactions, Examples Predicting Precipitation Reactions. Use slide 3. Write molecular, total ionic, net ionic, spectator ions (a) MgCl 2 + AgNO 3 ? (last time) (b) Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + K 2 SO 4 ? (c) lead(II) nitrate + potassium bromide (last time) (d) Aluminum nitrate + sodium phosphate
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5 Precipitation Stoichiometry, Ex. 1 Ex: 4.35, p. 170. Given: 35.0 mL of lead(II) nitrate soln is mixed with excess sodium iodide to give 0.628 g ppt. Find: Concentration of lead (II) ion in original soln. Soln: Write eqn using solubility rules, balance it, then use volume* conc. = # mol = V*M Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 NaI (aq) → PbI 2 (s) + 2 NaNO 3 (aq) Conc. Pb +2 = 0.628 g PbI 2 * (mol PbI 2 /461g PbI 2 ) *(mol Pb +2 /mol PbI 2 )/0.0350 L = ? Mol Pb +2 /L soln
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6 Acid & Bases Acids and bases - important electrolytes. Arrhenius Concept acid: proton (H + ) donor base: hydroxide ion (OH - ) donor Common in life! Next Slide.
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7 Take note, don’t memorize.
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8 Acids & Bases Acid - produces H + ions when dissolved in water. Ex: nitric acid, HNO 3 (aq) (strong acid), gives H + and NO 3 - . Complete ionization, so strong electrolyte. ) aq ( NO ) aq ( H ) aq ( HNO 3 O H 3 2 - + + →
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9 Acids & Bases What actually happens is closer to HI(aq) + H 2 O (l) → H 3 O + (aq) + I - (aq) (see next slide) Hydronium ion Use H + (aq) as a shorthand for H 3 O + (aq).
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10 Fig. 4.4
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11 Acids & Bases Base - produces OH - ions when dissolved in water. Ex: sodium hydroxide, NaOH (aq) (ionic), gives sodium and hydroxide ions. Complete ionization, so strong electrolyte. ) aq ( OH ) aq ( Na ) s ( NaOH O H 2 - + + →
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12 Acids & Bases Ex: ammonia, NH 3 (molecular), is a base ) aq ( OH ) aq ( NH ) l ( O H ) aq ( NH 4 2 3 - +  + + because gives some hydroxide ions in water. Incomplete ionization, so weak electrolyte.
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13 Acid-Base Rxns; Neutralization Writing Net Ionic Acid-Base Rxns (Neutralization) Need to identify acid or base as strong or weak.
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