131%2C+T1%2C+Ch1a++Anatomy+Intro - Anatomy Overview Anatomy...

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8/25/11 1 Anatomy Human Body Orientation & Terminology* Chapter 1a IB 131 Instructor: Tom Carlson Anatomy Overview Anatomy – The study of the structure of the human body – This includes morphology which is the study of form. Physiology – The study of body function Anatomy Gross anatomy: study of body structure that can be seen by the naked eye Surface anatomy: study of shapes and markings called landmarks on the body which reveal the underlying bones and organs Microscopic anatomy (histology): the study of structures so small they can only be seen with a microscope Anatomy • Anatomical terminology – Based on ancient Greek and Latin – Provides standard nomenclature worldwide • Branches of anatomy – Developmental anatomy – Embryology – Gross anatomy – Pathological anatomy (pathology) – Radiographic anatomy – Functional anatomy/morphology – Comparative anatomy Hierarchy of Structural Organization Atomic/molecular level —atoms form molecules Cellular level —cells and their functional subunits Tissue level —a group of cells performing a common function Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Cardiovascular system Organelle Molecule Atoms Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Hierarchy of Structural Organization Figure 1.1
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8/25/11 2 Hierarchy of Structural Organization Organ level —a discrete structure made up of more than one tissue type Organ system —organs working together for a common purpose e.g., heart & blood vessels; kidneys, ureters, & bladder Organism level— the result of all organ systems working in unison Systemic vs Regional
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131%2C+T1%2C+Ch1a++Anatomy+Intro - Anatomy Overview Anatomy...

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