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131%2C+T12%2C+Ch10+Muscle+Tissue

131%2C+T12%2C+Ch10+Muscle+Tissue - Muscle Muscle Tissue...

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9/30/11 1 Muscle Tissue Chapter 10 IB 131 Instructor: Tom Carlson Department of Integrative Biology University of California, Berkeley 1 Muscle Muscle—a Latin word for “little mouse” Smooth muscle lines walls of hollow organs: smooth muscle tissue Heart muscle: cardiac muscle tissue Skeletal muscle: skeletal muscle tissue –makes up 40% the body’s mass 2 Compare skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle Location Skeletal muscle: attached to bone or to skin (e.g. with some facial muscles) Cardiac muscle: in walls of the heart Smooth muscle: walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, and glands 3 Table 10.2 (1 of 3) Comparison of Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle 4 Compare skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle Cell shape and appearance Skeletal muscle: single, very long cylindrical, multinucleate cells with obvious striations Cardiac muscle: branching chains of cells, uninucleate or binucleate, with striations Smooth muscle: single, fusiform, uninucleate, no striations 5 Muscle Tissue Movement Skeletal muscle —attached to skeleton and moves body by moving the bones Smooth muscle —squeezes fluids and other substances through hollow organs and glands 6
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9/30/11 2 Functions of Muscle Tissue Maintenance of posture —enables the body to remain sitting or standing Joint stabilization Heat generation • Muscle contractions produce heat • Helps maintain normal body temperature 7 Functional Features of Muscles Excitability : electrical nerve impulse stimulates the muscle cell to contract Contractility : long cells shorten and generate pulling force Extensibility : can be stretched back to its original length by contraction of an opposing muscle Elasticity : can recoil after being stretched 8 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Packaged into skeletal muscles Makes up 40% of body weight Cells are striated 9 Types of Muscle Tissue Cardiac muscle tissue —occurs only in the walls of the heart Smooth muscle tissue —occupies the walls of hollow organs –Cells lack striations 10 Similarities of Muscle Tissue Cells of smooth and skeletal muscle are known as fibers Muscle contraction depends on two types of myofilaments with contractile proteins which generate contractile force • One type contains actin • Another type contains myosin 11 Skeletal Muscle Each muscle is an organ consists mostly of muscle tissue Skeletal muscle also contains • Connective tissue • Blood vessels • Nerves 12
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9/30/11 3 Sheaths of connective tissue bind skeletal muscle and its fibers together Epimysium —dense regular connective tissue surrounding entire muscle Perimysium —surrounds each fascicle (group/bundle of muscle fibers) Endomysium —within a fascicle, each muscle fiber is surrounded by a fine sheath of connective tissue consisting mainly of reticular fibers 13 Bone Perimysium Endomysium (between individual muscle fibers) Muscle fiber Fascicle (wrapped by perimysium) Epimysium Tendon Epimysium Muscle fiber
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