Ps526 lectures 2

Ps526 lectures 2 - 1 NOTES FOR FINAL EXAM BEGIN HERE...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 NOTES FOR FINAL EXAM BEGIN HERE Chapter 6: Aversive Regulation of Behavior 2 Classes of Reinforcing and Punishing Stimuli Reinforcer (Appetitive) Aversive Stimulus Present Positive Reinforcement Positive Punishment Remove/ Terminate Negative Punishment Negative Reinforcement 3 Contingencies of Punishment Positive punishment occurs when a stimulus is presented following an operant and the rate of response decreases. ex. Spanking Negative punishment occurs when a stimulus is removed contingent on a response occurring and the rate of response decreases. ex. Response cost & timeout. 4 Contingencies of Punishment Premack principle states that the opportunity to engage in a higher frequency behavior will reinforce a lower frequency response. Likewise, opportunity to engage in a LOWER frequency behavior will PUNISH a HIGHER frequency response. 5 Reinforcement and Punishment All things being equal, most people respond better to both immediate reinforcement and immediate punishment. (They learn the contingencies easier this way). Most punishments in American society are given for behaviors that are immediately reinforcing, (drug use) while the threat of the punishments for these deeds is delayed and uncertain. 6 Reinforcement and Punishment Punishment, by itself, tends to be ineffective except for temporarily suppressing undesirable behavior. Only very severe punishment can produce long- term suppression of behavior Mild, logical and consistent punishment can be informative and helpful as FEEDBACK 7 Effectiveness of Punishment Azrin and Holz 1966 Manner of introduction Immediacy of punishment Schedule of punishment Schedule of reinforcement Motivational variables Availability of other reinforcers Punisher as discriminative stimulus 8 Making Punishment Most Effective Intensity of punishment Immediacy of punishment Punishment is most effective at reducing responses when it is presented shortly after the behavior Schedule of punishment Punishment delivered continuously is more effective versus intermittently. As the rate of punishment increases the response decreases. 9 If using punishment If you are punishing a specific behavior, the reinforcement for that behavior should be discontinued, or at least reduced or made available contingent upon some other appropriate behavior. Punishment only teaches one thing: What NOT to do. What kind of teacher would only try to teach by just saying No!? 10 Motivation and Punishment When motivation is reduced the punishment is most effective. Behavior may be completely suppressed when the motivation to respond is low....
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Ps526 lectures 2 - 1 NOTES FOR FINAL EXAM BEGIN HERE...

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