Applications

Applications - Some Practical Applications of Classical...

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Some Practical Applications of Classical Conditioning
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Understanding Phobias John B. Watson was the first person to study human emotions systematically Because of his and subsequent research, we now recognize that most of our emotional reactions are learned and they are learned mainly through classical conditioning Watson & Rayner (1920 & 1921) began their research by testing a number of infants to see their reactions to fire, dogs, cats, laboratory rats, and other stimuli thought to be innately frightening; none of these were
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Understanding Phobias Watson & Rayner (1920) found that a loud noise did elicit an innate fear reaction (crying and other fear-like responses) They then did the famous Little Albert study where they paired a white lab rat (CS) with striking a steel bar with a hammer behind Albert s head (US) Little Albert began to show fear (crying and crawling away = CR) to the white lab rat fairly quickly
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Little Albert Experiment
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Factors in Phobic Conditioning Observational Learning -acquiring a fear CR through observing someone else showing fear to the CS Temperament -an organism s base level of emotionality & reactivity to stimulation (poodles vs. german shepherd dogs) Preparedness -the tendency to associate some CS-US associations more readily than others History of Control - having some control over events in their lives immunizes organisms against a higher level of fear associated with strange new stimuli
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Treating Phobias Mary Cover Jones (1924) was another of Watson s students She was the first to show that classical conditioning could help people overcome fears as well as acquire them Jones most famous subject was Peter, a toddler with a fear of rabbits She used counterconditioning on Peter
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Treating Phobias Counterconditioning One CS is presented at the same time as another
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2011 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor X during the Spring '11 term at Fairfield.

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Applications - Some Practical Applications of Classical...

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