ch03 - Chapter 3 Pavlovian(Classical Conditioning Ivan...

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Chapter 3 Pavlovian (Classical) Conditioning
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Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) Pavlovian (Classical) conditioning Medical physiologist Digestion Human/animal differences Conditioned reflexes en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ivan_Pavlov_(Nobel).png en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:One_of_Pavlov%27s_dogs.jpg
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Terminology Unconditional stimulus (US) Stimulus that elicits the innate reflex (e.g., food) Unconditional response (UR) Reflex action that occurs in response to US (e.g., salivation) Conditional stimulus (CS) Any stimulus that doesn t originally elicit the UR (e.g., bell) Conditional response (CR) The action elicited by the CS (e.g., salivation)
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Conditioning and Awareness Awareness of conditioning not required for learning
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Innate US-UR is an innate stimulus-behaviour Reflex Hardwired Stereotypic pattern of behaviour
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Example: Bell and Food CS US UR CR Later Trials CS US UR First Few Trials Time CS = bell US = food UR = salivation CR = salivation
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Processes Acquisition Acquiring a CR E.g., pair CS with US Extinction Reduce/eliminate a CR E.g., present CS without US
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Measuring Conditioning Sometimes difficult to measure CR e.g., if CS & US close together, CR & UR can overlap Test trial (probe trial) Give CS alone Intensity Does CR intensity increase with experience?
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Example: Eyeblink Conditioning Airpuff on eye Blink UR vs. CR eyeblinks UR blink faster than CR blink CS (tone) US (airpuff) CR (blink) UR (blink)
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Example: Taste Aversion Very strong Very persistent Usually conditioned after one presentation Experiment Rats fed novel food ( C S ) Injected with lithium chloride ( U S ) Choice: novel food or regular food Chose regular food
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Higher-Order Conditioning C S s and USs can be associated (First-order) C S s can be associated with other C S s Second-order conditioning
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First-Order Conditioning salivation (CR) first-order tone ( C S 1 ) food (US)
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Second-Order Conditioning light (CS 2 ) tone (CS 1 ) second-order salivation (CR) Risk of extinction? salivation (CR) tone (CS 1 ) food (US)
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CS+ and CS- CS+ (excitatory CS) CS predicts occurrence of US Activates behaviour related to US CS- (inhibitory CS) CS predicts non-occurrence of US Suppresses behaviour related to US
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Randomize trial type presentation CS+ CS- US Trial Type A Trial Type B Context cues serve as CS+ CS- US NEGATIVE CONTINGENCY PROTOCOL PAVLOV S PROCEDURE
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ch03 - Chapter 3 Pavlovian(Classical Conditioning Ivan...

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