rhp-memory - HUMAN HUMAN MEMORY MEMORY “The computer is a...

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Unformatted text preview: HUMAN HUMAN MEMORY MEMORY “The computer is a retriever of information, information, not a rememberer of experience” of Schacter EBBINGHAUS -1880s EBBINGHAUS Laboratory studies of verbal verbal learning, memory, and forgetting forgetting INFORMATION INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL OF MEMORY SENSORY MEMORY SHORT­TERM MEMORY STM LONG­TERM MEMORY LTM SENSORY MEMORY SENSORY High capacity, rapid High rapid decay, less than 1 second for the icon, icon 2-3 seconds for the echo echo SENSORY MEMORY All Incoming Information ­ Information Not Attended To FORGOTTEN SENSORY MEMORY All Incoming Information ­ ATTENTION Information Not SHORT-TERM Attended To MEMORY FORGOTTEN Attention Attention ø is a control process control ø Gateway to awareness awareness Attention Attention ø Control process Control ø Gateway to awareness awareness ø Example of inattentional blindness blindness Short-Term Memory STM STM ø ø ø ø Working memory Working Limited capacity, Limited 7 + or - 2 or Digit span test Digit Chunking Chunking STM STM Rapid decay, 10-30 10-30 sec for unrehearsed meaningless material meaningless ø STM STM øNot Not a passive storage depot storage øRather, an active Rather, mental workspace known as known øWorking memory Working Memory Visuospatial Scratchpad Central Executive Central Phonological Phonological Long-Term Memory LTM ø Vast capacity Vast ø Long or permanent duration duration ø Rajan - pi - 30,000 digits digits Classes of LTM Classes 1. Declarative - Explicit Declarative a. Semantic - general Semantic knowledge of the world knowledge b. Episodic - knowledge Episodic of your own past experiences experiences Classes of LTM Classes 2. Nondeclarative or 2. Implicit Implicit - Procedural - learned Procedural skills or habitual responses, classical conditioning, priming conditioning, FORGETTING FORGETTING Forgetting Forgetting as a result of decay? Simple passage of time after learning has minimal effect on retention Forgetting as Forgetting as a result of interference Retroactive Retroactive Interference Current learning interferes with recall of previously learned material Retroactive Retroactive Interference Learn Learn Memory A B Loss for A Time Proactive Proactive Interference Prior learning interferes with retention of new information Proactive Proactive Interference Learn Learn Memory A B Loss for B Time Retrograde and Retrograde and Anterograde Amnesia Time Retrograde Anterograde Head Trauma Medial Temporal Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia ø Mr. H. M. ­ almost solely anterograde amnesia ø Hippocampal damage ø Separation of procedural and declarative memories Bilateral medial temporal lobe damage induces declarative anterograde anterograde amnesia amnesia Can these patients acquire a classically conditioned response? conditioned ø Delayed conditioning, CS and US overlap ø Yes ø Trace conditioning, CS and US do not overlap ø No Delayed and trace classical conditioning øare different kinds of learning involving ø different brain structures ø Separation of episodic and semantic memories in unidentified patients in ø Example: Richard Nixon’s father was a member of Hell’s Angels member Korsakoff’s Syndrome Korsakoff’s øassociated associated with alcoholism - vitamin B1 alcoholism deficiency deficiency øsimilar to diencephalic similar diencephalic amnesia - mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus Mr. N. A. Mr. Sweet Memories Sweet øWhy Why do some events become vivid memories? memories? øFlashbulb Memories Sweet Memories Sweet Memories ø Post­trial administration of epinephrine improves memories ø Post­trial administration of glucose improves memories Memories associated with arousal produce arousal ø epinephrine release and ø glucose release glucose ø Flashbulb Memories may be sweet memories be Repressed Memories Repressed ø Repression Repression - major Freudian concept - unacceptable thoughts pushed into the unconscious unconscious ø Does incest/sexual abuse Does during childhood produce repression and behavioral dysfunction dysfunction YES! assert some YES! øtherapists therapists - repressed memories are associated with depression, eating disorders, sexual dysfunction, anxiety, etc øRecovery of memories is Recovery therapeutic therapeutic George Franklin was accused of murdering a young girl, Susan Nason, more than two decades after the crime. crime. His daughter Eileen, only 8 at the time of His the murder, claimed to have witnessed it, repressed it, and then recovered the memory. He was convicted. memory. YES! assert some YES! øSelf-help poppsychology books psychology øThe Courage to Heal by Bass and Davis by “If you think you were If abused and your life shows the symptoms, then you were. If you don’t remember your abuse, you are not alone. Many women don’t have memories.....this doesn’t mean they weren’t abused.” abused.” NO! assert most NO! ø therapists, therapists, accused individuals, and cognitive psychologists psychologists ø False Memory Syndrome False Foundation - 7,000 members, founded by Pamela Freyd, accused by her daughter accused “Recovered-memory therapists have invented a mechanism that supposedly causes a child’s awareness of sexual assault to be driven entirely from consciousness. There is no limit to the number of traumatic events that can be repressed, and no limit to the length of time over which the series of events can occur.” False Memory Test False øFalse False memories can be implanted implanted øTraumatic Traumatic events generally NOT repressed NOT - can’t be forgotten post-traumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans veterans øTraumatic memories are Traumatic “sweet memories” ...
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