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Unformatted text preview: Chap 7: Affiliation and Friendship 1. There is a biologically based need to belong , evident in the evolutionary benefits and universality of different relationships and in the negative consequences that accompany the absence of relationships, as shown by the deficits in feral children. Know why we have friends and the goals of affiliation and friendship Know the reinforcement-affect model and social exchange theory explanations for who we choose to have as friends The Reinforcement affect model is based on the idea that we will like people with whom we associate feeling good and dislike people whom we see as treating us badly. This theory was based on four principles , the first of which is the basic fact of stimulus and association : We are attracted to those who give us rewarding stimuli , such as perhaps a compliment and unnatracted to those who berate us or give us any other punishing stimuli. This attraction or repulsion will produce either negative of positive feelings towards a person, changing perhaps how we view them. The model has these features: People seek out rewarding stimuli Positive feelings associated with rewarding stimuli and negative feelings with punishing stimuli A stimulus is evaluated according to the feelings it produces, e.g. an evaluation is good if the feeling is positive Background neutral stimuli associated with the reward elicit positive feelings Know the effects of lack of social support on health Know the gender differences in fight or flight and tend or befriend Know the cycle of depression and loneliness Know how similarity impacts who we associate with 2. A major source of attraction is similarity . Engaged couples are more similar to one another than are randomly paired men and women. Studies using the bogus stranger paradigm invariably find that people like individuals who resemble them more than individuals who do not. There is scant evidence that "opposites attract." 3. 4. Four reasons for the effect of similarity on attraction are : ( a ) similar others validate our beliefs and values, ( b ) similarity facilitates smooth interactions, ( c ) we expect similar others to like us (which is rewarding), and (d ) similar others have qualities we like . Know how desire for status may impact who we associate with Know the four fundamental forms of social relationships Fiske's relational models theory posits that there are four different kinds of relational styles: (a) the communal sharing , family-like, relationship style, in which members of the group receive what they need and give what they can ; (b) the authority ranking relationship style characteristic of corporations and tribal groups headed by chiefs, in which power flows from a head to those lower and resources are distributed as the head sees fit; (c) the...
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- Spring '11