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exam2reading - Cognitive Consequences Note the following...

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Cognitive Consequences Note the following when reading the articles and preparing for the test: For empirical articles (those that mostly focus on one or a few studies), you should know: The first author’s last name Festinger The purpose or purposes of the study what happens to a person’s private opinion when he/she is forced to say or do something contrary to that opinion Major hypotheses: 1. If a person is induced to say/do something contrary to thir private opnion there will be a tendency for that person to change their opinion to bring it into correspondance with what they have said/done. 2. The larger the pressure used to elicit the overt behavior (beyond the minimum needed to elicit it) the weaker will be tendency to change opinion Basic design and procedure of the study including independent variables (what happened in the study? What was manipulated?) o Participants complete boring tasks for one hour (turning pegs repeatedly) o Expt’r then asks some to tell next participant that the task is “exciting and fun” o Offers payment of either $1 or $20 o Some are not asked to lie o Three groups o No Lie o Lie for $1 o Lie for $20 Major findings (including dependent variables) and conclusions What principles were demonstrated and what theories were supported or undermined? Why was the study important? o People want their thoughts, beliefs, attitudes to be consistent with each other and their behavior o Tension results when people act in a way that is inconsistent with their attitudes o How reduce tension? magnitude of dissonance = Number of dissonant cognitions x importance Number of consonant cognitions x importance
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o Change attitude/beliefs Change behavior And be able to APPLY the major findings to other examples - Attitudes vs. Actions Note the following when reading the articles and preparing for the test: For empirical articles (those that mostly focus on one or a few studies), you should know: The first author’s last name lapiere The purpose or purposes of the study test assmption that Attitudes predict behavior Major hypotheses Basic design and procedure of the study including independent variables (what happened in the study? What was manipulated?) professor toured the US with a Chinese couple (graduate students) at a time when there was much anti–Chinese prejudice. Visited 66 hotels and 184 restaurants and were refused service only once. Sent questionnaires to the hotels and restaurants asking if they would refuse to serve Chinese; Major findings (including dependent variables) and conclusions 128 replied, and 92% said yes they would. What principles were demonstrated and what theories were supported or undermined? Why was the study important? And be able to APPLY the major findings to other examples
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exam2reading - Cognitive Consequences Note the following...

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